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31 Cards in this Set

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What is Science
It is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
What does observation mean?
It is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way.
What is data?
It is the information gathered from observations.
What is an inference?
It is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience.
What is a hypothesis?
It is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations.
What is the goal of science?
It is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and to use explanations to make useful predictions.
What is spontaneous generation?
It is the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter. This is considered to be a hypothesis.
What is a controlled experiment?
This is an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables are kept unchanged or "controlled".
What is a manipulated variable?
It is the variable that is deliberately changed in an experiment.
What is a responding variable?
It is the variable that is observed and that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
What is a theory?
It applies to a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations.
How do scientists test hypotheses?
Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time.
How does a scientific theory develop?
It developes as evidence from numerous investigations and is well supported by scientists.
What is biology?
Biology is the science that seeks to understand the living world.
What is a cell?
It is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings.
What is sexual reproduction?
It is where two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism.
What is asexual reproduction?
This is when a new organism is formed from only one parent.
What is metabolism?
It is the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
What is a stimulus?
It is a signal to which an organism responds.
What is homeostasis?
The process by which organisms keep internal conditions fairly content to survive despite external conditions such as temperature.
What is evolution?
Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
What are some characteristics of living things?
*They are made up of cells.
*They reproduce.
*They are based on a universal genetic code.
*They grow and develop.
*They obtain and use materials and energy.
*They respond to their environment.
*They maintain a stable internal environment.
***Taken as a group, they change over time.
How can life be studied at different levels?
It can be studied at the following levels:

molecules, cells, organisms, populations of a single kind of organism, communities of different organisms in one area, and in the biosphere.
What is the metric system?
It is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of 10.
What is a microscope?
They are devices that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye.
What is a compound microscope?
It is a type of microscope that allows light to pass through the specimen and it uses two lenses to form an image. It allows scientists to view dead and alive things.
What is an electron microscope?
This type of microscope uses beams of electrons, rather than light, to produce images. It allows scientist to study even smaller images. There are both TEMs, Transmission Electron Microscopes, and SEMs, Scanning Electron Microscopes. You can't view living things/cells with electron microscopes.
What is cell culture?
It is a group of cells that develop from a single cell. Often this is done by scientists on a petri dish.
What is cell fractionation?
A technique used to separate different parts of the cell. Typically the cells are broken and spun in a centrifuge.
What measurement system do most scientists use?
The metric system.
How are light microscopes and electron microscopes different and how are they similar?
Similar: both magnify images and allow scientist to study things not visible to the unaided eye.

Different: LM use light and EM use electron beams. LM allows viewing live and dead items and EM you can only view dead items. EM allows for greater magnification.