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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When did the Mesozoic era begin and end?
251 ma -- 65 ma
What three geologic periods comprise the Mesozoic era?
Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic
Why was global-sea level so high in the cretaceous?
Sea-floor spreading
What type of rock is the Niobrara Formation of Kansas?
Chalk
What is chalk made of?
Coccolithophores
What were the large bivalves in the Nioabra chalk known as?
inoceramids
What type of animal is "Uintacrinus"?
Crinoid
Which major group of vergebrates has left behind the most fossils in Kansas chalk?
Fish
What are the four major groups of amniotes and how are they classified?
Synapsids, Anapsids, Diapsids, & Euryapsids. Based on position of skull bones.
How many holes do Anapsids have?
No holes
How mahy holes do Diapsids have?
2 holes
How many holes do Euryapsids have?
1 hole
What kind of amniotes are turtles?
Anapsids
What kind of amniotes are mososaurs?
Diapsids
What kind of amniotes are pterosaurs?
Diapsids
Mososaurs are thought to be most closely related to which living group of reptiles?
Monitor lizards
When did mososaurs live (relative time pd)
Cretaceous
What are two specialized features of the mososaur skull?
Double-hinged, teeth on palate
When did pterosaurs live (relative time periods)?
Mesozoic
Whatkind of amniotes are plesiosaurs
Euryapsids
What kind of amniotes are ichthyosaurs?
Euryapsids
What is the evidence that ichthyosaurs gave live-birth?
Fossil of one dying during childbirth
what group of organisms had the largest known eyes ever?
Ichthyosaur
What kind of amniotes are archosaurs?
diapsids
What are some examples of living and extinct archosaurs?
Alligators, crocodiles, pterosaurs, birds, dinosaurs
What feature distinguishes dinosaurs from other amniotes?
perforate hip sockets
About how many genera of dinosaurs are known?
527
How many genera of dinosaurs are estimated to have lived during the Mesozoic?
250
Is known dinosaur diversity correlated with the amount of fossiliferous outcrop exposed at Earth's surface?
Yes
What are the two major groups of dinosaurs?
Saurischians & Ornithischians
4 major groups of ornithiscian dinosaurs
Armored dinos
Horned dinos
Pachycophalosaurs
Ornithopods
2 major groups of saurishchian dinosaurs
Sauropods
Therapods
What group of saurischian dinosaurs include the largest land animals that have ever lived?
Sauropods
4 examples of therapod dinosaurs
Tyrannosaurus, allosaurus, velociraptor, all living birds
How fast is T. Rex thought to have been able to run?
11 MPH
What did the discovery of "medullary bone" suggest about the particular specimen of T. Rex in which it was found?
The specimen is Female
What was the approximate life span of T. rex?
30 years
During which period of its life did the T. Rex grow the fastest?
Teenage years
About how many living species of birds are tehre?
Over 9000
What sort of amniotes are birds?
Diapsids
What sorts of morphological features unite birds with one another?
feathers, flight, hollow bones, diapsid skull
How old (what period) is Archaeopteryx?
Jurassic
Which lineage of dinosaurs gave rise to birds?
Maniraptoran Therapod dinosaurs
What morphological c haracteristics unite the maniraptoran dinosaurs?
Long arms, big hands, claw, fused clavicle & sternum, stiff tail
Before being co-opted for flight, what functions are feathers thought to have played in therapod dinosaurs such as the maniraptorans?
Heat, camouflage, sexual display
What are some of the explanations for the extinction of the dinosaurs that were discussed prior to about 1980?
Global cooling or warming, disease, digestion problems, mammals eating their eggs, cataracts
What sort of land-dwelling organisms went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous?
Non-avian dinos
pterosaurs
angiosperm plant life
What sorts of sea-dwelling organisms went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous?
Anmonites
mososaurs
plesiosaurs
marine plankton
invertebrate groups
What unusual metal is found in abundant amounts in K-T boundary sections throughout the world? Where is this usually found?
Iridium

Usually found in ET rocks and interior of the Earth
What did the discovery of iridium suggest about the cause of the K-T mass extinction?
Comet impact
What other physical evidence backs up the idea of a comet impact being the cause of the K-T mass extinction?
shocked quartz teletites, tsunami deposits
Where is the K-T bolide thought to have landed?
AZ or Mexico
What were some of the likely environmental consequences of the K-T bolide impact?
Release of thermal energy, tsunami

NUCLEAR WINTER
Dust cloud fills atmosphere
Stayed there for week
Darkness-no photosynthesis
Freezing temps
What sort of marine organisms make up the Modern Evolutionary Fauna?
Snails, clams, sea urchins, crustaceans, bony fish, sharks, marine mammals, cephalopods, corals
What does the word "durophagous" mean?
Shell-breaking
"Escalation" is a term that has been used to describe what sort of co-evolutionary relationship between organisms?
"arms race"
What are reefs?
Ridgelike moundlike structures--resistant & stand above surrounding sediment
Where are most coral reefs found today?
Tropical climates
What mineral do scleractinian corals make their skeletons out of?
aragonite
Do scleractinian corals thrive in high or low nutrient conditions?
low nutrient
What are zooxanthellae and what do they do for corals?
Photosynthesizing algae--help corals grow faster
What is coral bleaching?
When coral has no zooxanthellae
What causes coral bleaching?
temp changes
pollution
disease
What superphylum and phylum do echinoids belong in?
SP: Deuterostomia
P: Echinodermata
What are some exsamples of echinoids?
Sea urchins, sand dollars
What superphylum, phylum, and class do crustaceans belong in?
SP: Ecdysozoa
P: Anthropoda
C: Crustacea
What are some examples of crustaceans?
Crabs, lobsters, crayfish
What superphylum, phylum, and class do ammonoids belong in?
SP: Lophotrochozoa
P: MOllusca
C: Cephalopoda
What sort of evolutionary trend do Ammonoids show?
They become increasingly complex with evolution
What purpose do ammonoid fossils serve for palentologists?
They are very important for biostratigraphy
What superphylum and phylum do bivalves belong in?
SP:Lophotrochozoa
P: Mollusca
What superphylum and phylum do gastropods belong in?
SP: Lophotrochozoa
P: Mollusca
What are some examples of gastropods?
Snails & slugs
Are most snail shells dextral or sinistral?
Dextral
What type of amniotes are mammals?
Synapsids
What are the three important innovations of the mammal skull?
Masseter jaw structure
Tooth differentiation
Jaw bones become bones of the inner ear
What is important about the masseter muscle?
More complex chewing, powerful & efficent bites
Why is tooth differentiation important for mammals?
Teeth have diff. functions
Why is mammalian tooth differentiation important for taxonomists?
Helps them classify
Three of four jaw bones in mammals evolved into what?
inner ear
How old (what period) are the oldest true mammals?
Triassic
How diverse were mammals during the reign of the dinosaurs?
Low diversity
How large were most Mesozoic mammals?
rat-sized
What superphylum and phylum do mammals belong in?
SP: Deuterostomia
P: Chordata
3 groups of living mammals
Monotremes
Marsupials
Placental Mammals
Do some marsupials show considerable convergence of form with placental mammals?
Yes
Approx. what percentage of all mammals that have ever lived are placental mammals?
95%
Do morphological and DNA data give highly confliting views of the higher-level relationships among placental mammals?
Yes
When (what period and epoch) did many groups of more-or-less modern placental mammals apparently evolve?
Cretaceous/paleogene
What type of animal was the largest mammal to ever live on land?
Indricotherium
What are three evolutionary trends that have been documented in fossil horses?
Increasing body size, reduction in # of toes, increase in size of teeth
What is orthogenesis?
the idea that a guiding force drives evolution in a linear fashion toward a goal
When was the idea of orthogenesis popular?
Late 19th/Early 20th century
What were the problems with Orthogenesis?
lack of identifiable mechanism
lack of evidence
How many genera of horses survive to the present day?
One
What are the two major groups of whales?
toothed and bleen
What is the largest animal that has EVER lived (land or sea)?
Blue whale
What group of placental mammals did whales evolve from?
Artiodactyls
What are artiodactyls?
Even toes, placental w/ hooves
What are some examples of living artiodactyls?
Camels, pigs, cattle
Among all living placental mammals, DNA evidence suggests that whales are most closely related to which group?
Hippopotami
What aspect of skeletal morphology stronly suggests an affinity between early terrestrial whale ancestors and artiodactyls?
double-pulley ankle bones
Are vestigal remains of hind limbs known from any modern whales?
yes
When did the Pleistocene ephoch begin and end?
1.8 Ma to 12,000 years ago
What are some factors that likely contribute to the onset of ice ages?
Composition of atmosphere, variation in Earth's orbit, plate tectonics
What are some examples of the North and South American Megafauna?
Sloths, saber-toothed cats, dire wolves, camels, giant beavers, wooly mammoths
What are some examples of the Eurasian maegafauna?
Wooly mammoths, cave bears
What are three possible causes for the extinction of the PLeistocene megafauna towards the end of the Pleistocene?
Climate change
disease
overhunting
What are the closest living relatives of humans?
Chimpanzees
What primate group do humans and great apes belong in?
Hominids
Did humans evolve directly from chimpanzees?
No
Did the earliest humans live at the same time as dinosaurs?
no
How many species of Homo co-existed about 200,000 years ago?
4
Approximately what percentage of our DNA do we share with chimps?
98.8%
What sorts of things make humans special?
Morphology, symbolism, tools, culture
Do modern humans have larger brains than Neanderthals?
Yes
Did neanderthals and modern humans ever live at the same time?
yes
Has DNA been recovered from Neanderthal fossils?
yes
How simlilar is Neanderthal DNA to modern human DNA?
99.5%
What are the three important innovations of the mammal skull?
Masseter jaw structure
Tooth differentiation
Jaw bones become bones of the inner ear
What is important about the masseter muscle?
More complex chewing, powerful & efficent bites
Why is tooth differentiation important for mammals?
Teeth have diff. functions
Why is mammalian tooth differentiation important for taxonomists?
Helps them classify
Three of four jaw bones in mammals evolved into what?
inner ear
How old (what period) are the oldest true mammals?
Triassic
How diverse were mammals during the reign of the dinosaurs?
Low diversity
How large were most Mesozoic mammals?
rat-sized
What superphylum and phylum do mammals belong in?
SP: Deuterostomia
P: Chordata
3 groups of living mammals
Monotremes
Marsupials
Placental Mammals
Do some marsupials show considerable convergence of form with placental mammals?
Yes
Approx. what percentage of all mammals that have ever lived are placental mammals?
95%
Do morphological and DNA data give highly confliting views of the higher-level relationships among placental mammals?
Yes
When (what period and epoch) did many groups of more-or-less modern placental mammals apparently evolve?
Cretaceous/paleogene
What type of animal was the largest mammal to ever live on land?
Indricotherium