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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
a-, an-, ab
without, lack of, not

"asymmetric" - without symmetry
ad-, af-
near, towards, to

"adsorption" - adherence of gas molecules, or of ions or molecules in solution, to the surface of solids with which they are in contact, as methane to coal or moisture to silica gel.
back, again

"anatexis" -melting of preexisting rock.
anti-, ant-
against, opposite

"anticline" - a set of folded, layered rocks dipping in two directions away from a crest.
before, in front of [antebellum, antecedet]

"autolith" - an inclusion in an igneous rock to which it is genetically related. OPPOSITE: xenolith
apo-, ap-
away, from [apogee]
away, from

"abrade" - to rub or wear off; to waste or wear away by friction, as to abrade rocks
bi-, di-, du-, dy-
double, two, twice

"birefringence" - the property of anisotropic crystals to split a beam of light into two polarized rays.
ambi-, amphi-, ampho-

"amphibole" - a mineral group characterized by double chains of silica tetrahedra.
good, well

"beneficate" - mining term: to improve the grade by removing associated impurities; to upgrade
cata-, cath-, cat-
down, away, thorough, complete

"cataclysm" - any geologic event that produces sudden and extensive changes in the Earth's surface such as an exceptionally violent earthquake
col-, com-, con-, co-
with, together

"compression"- reduction in pore space between individual grains from pressure of overlying sediments or pressures of earth movement
contra-, counter-
opposite, against

"countervein" - mining term: a cross vein running at approx. right angles to the main orebody

"centipoise" - the one-hundredth part of a poise, an absolute unit of fluid viscosity.
circum-, circ-

"circumferentor" - surveyor's compass with diametral projecting arms each carrying a vertical slit sight.
remove, reverse, down from, away,negative

"decollement" - detachment structure in layered rock. Unique deformation styles above and below the surface of decollement are produced. It is associated with folding and with overthrusting.
dis-, di-
free from, apart from, away, not

"discordant" - a type of contact between an igneous intrusion and the country rock that is not parallel to the foliation or bedding planes of the country rock
deci-, deca-

"decibar" - (dbar) a metric unit of pressure equal to 0.1 bar or 10 kilopascals. One decibar equals 1.450 pounds per square inch (lbf/in2 or psi). The decibar is often used to measure the pressure of seawater, because an increase of 1 decibar in pressure corresponds closely to an increase of 1 meter in depth
through, between

"diapir" - a dome or anticlinal fold in which the overlying rocks have been ruptured by the squeezing-out of plastic core material
bad, badly

"dystomic" - having an imperfect fracture or cleavage
equi-, iso-

"isometric" - a system of crystallization with three axes at right angles and of equal length

"equivalent" - corresponding in geologic age or stratigraphic position; esp. said of strata or formations (in regions far from each other) that are contemporaneous in time of formation or deposition or that contain the same fossil forms
on, outside, over, above, upon

"epicenter" - area on surface directly above focus of earthquake
ec-, ecto-, ex-, e-
outside, out, away from, without, completely removed, outside of, beyond

"eluvium" - accumulated rock debris produced in place by the decomposition or disintegration of rock; a weathering product; a residue
technically "ecto-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that
e-, ex-
away, outer, from, out of

"exfoliation" - the process by which concentric scales, plates, or shells of rock, from less than a centimeter to several meters in thickness, are successively spalled or stripped from the bare surface of a large rock mass
exter- extra-

"extraterrestrial" mining - mining of metals and minerals on locations other than the Earth through space colonization of planets and moons
em-, en-, endo-,ento
within, in, into

"endogenetic" - derived from within; said of a geologic process, or of its resultant feature or rock, that originates within the Earth, e.g., volcanism, volcanoes, extrusive rocks
technically, both "ento-" and "endo-" are combining forms and not a prefixes, but don't worry about that
enter-, entre-

"hemitrophic" - crystals appearing to be composed of two halves of a crystal turned partly around and united
dissimilar, unlike, other

"heterogranular" - textural term for a rock with crystals of significantly different sizes
homo-, homeo-
similar, like, same

"homocline" - A general term for a series of rock strata having the same dip. Homoclines include one limb of a fold, a tilted fault block, or an isocline.
under, beneath, decreased, low, beneath, down, below normal

beyond, increased, above, over, high, excessive, above normal

"hypermelanic" - igneous rocks consisting of 90% to 100% mafic minerals
personal, distinct, from within

"idiochromatic" - minerals exhibiting a specific coloring because they contain an agent that is an essential constituent, e.g., copper in malachite, iron in olivine
technically "idio-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that
i-, in-
without, lack of

"insoluble" - incapable of being dissolved in a particular liquid
in-, im
into, within, in

"implosion" - a bursting inward; sudden collapse; opposite of explosion
il-, ir-

"irregular" polygon - polygon in which neither the sides nor the angles are equal
beneath, below

"infrared" - Pertaining to or designating that part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging in wavelength from 0.7 mu m to about 1 mm (below the wavelength of red in the visible spectrum)
int-, intra, intro, inter
within, into, inside

"intratelluric" - said of a phenocryst, of an earlier generation than its groundmass, that formed at depth, prior to extrusion of a magma as lava
technically, "inter", "intra-", and "intro" are combining forms and not a prefixes, but don't worry about that

"isoseismal" line - a line connecting points on the Earth's surface at which earthquake intensity is the same. It is usually a closed curve around the epicenter.
to move

"kinetic" head - the energy of flowing water that is a function of its velocity
big, great, long

"macroscopic" - visible without a microscope or in a hand specimen
magn- magna-
great, large

"megascopic" - said of an object or phenomenon, or of its characteristics, that can be observed with the unaided eye or with a hand lens. Syn: macroscopic
mega-, megal-
big, great, abnormally largeS [megalith, megalomaniac]
technically "ecto-" and "magal" are combining forms and not a prefixes, but don't worry about that

"Mesozoic" Era - the intermediate era of the Phanerozoic Eon, following the Paleozoic Era and preceding the Cenozoic Era, and marked by the dominance of marine and terrestrial reptiles, and the appearance of birds, mammals, and flowering plants
technically "meso-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that
meta-, met-
beyond, change

"metamorphism" - a process whereby rocks undergo physical or chemical changes or both to achieve equilibrium with conditions other than those under which they were originally formed (weathering arbitrarily excluded from meaning). Agents of metamorphism are heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids

"micrograph" - a reproduction of the image of a magnified object as seen through a microscope. When it is a photograph, it is called a photomicrograph.
technically "micro-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that

"millibar" - a unit of atmospheric pressure equal to one-thousandth of a bar or 1,000 dyn/cm2
technically "milli-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that

"nebulite" - a type of mixed rock whose fabric is characterized by indistinct, streaky inhomogeneities (schlieren) in which no sharp distinction can be made between the component parts of the fabric

"nonmetallic" - of or pertaining to a nonmetal
ob-, oc-, of-, op-
to, toward, against
"obduction"- the overriding or overthrusting of oceanic crust onto the leading edges of continental lithospheric plates; plate accretion

"oligotrohic" - in lake aging pertains to a youthful lake and indicates water low in accumulated nutrients and high in dissolved oxygen
technically "olig-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that

"omnibus" - In glassmaking, a sheet-iron cover to protect the glass articles from drafts
orth-, ortho-
straight, right

"orthorhombic" crystal system - crystals with three unequal mutually perpendicular axes
technically "orth-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that
thick [pachyderm]
pan- , panto-

"Pangaea" - hypothetical continent from which all others are postulated to have originated through process of fragmentation and drifting
para-, par-
beside, nearby, variation

"paramorph" - a pseudomorph with the same composition as the original crystal, caused by a phase transformation; e.g., calcite with aragonite morphology
around, beyond

"pericline" - a general term for a fold in which the dip of the beds has a central orientation; beds dipping away from a center form a dome, and beds dipping toward a center form a basin. The term is generally British in usage.

"polymerize" - to chemically combine small molecules into larger molecules
technically "poly-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that

"postorogenic" intrustion - an igneous intrusion that took place after an orogenic event or cycle
before, first, primitive

"precursor" - relating to earthquakes, refers to events immediately preceding actual shaking of ground. Includes changes in seismic velocities, groundwater levels, and tilt of ground surface
in front of, before, forward, preceding, on behalf of, in place of, the same as

"prograde" metamorphism -metamorphic changes in response to a higher pressure or temperature than that to which the rock last adjusted itself
back, again

"rejuvination" - the renewal of any geologic process, such as the revival of a stream's erosive activity or the reactivation of a fissure
backwards, back

"retrograde" metamorhism - the mineralogical adjustment of relatively high-grade metamorphic rocks to temperatures lower than those of their initial metamorphism, characteristically inducing hydration and hydrous minerals. Syn: retrogressive metamorphism; diaphthoresis
technically "retro-" is a combining form and not a prefix, but don't worry about that

"segregate" - to separate from the general mass, and collect together or become concentrated at a particular place or in a certain region, such as in the process of crystallization or solidification
half, partly

"semiprecious" - Of less commercial value than those called precious; applied esp. to such stones as amethyst, garnet, jade, and tourmaline
under, below, beneath

"subduction" - act of one tectonic unit's descending under another (commonly slab of lithosphere)
super- supra-
over, above, beyond, excessive

"supergene" - aid of a mineral deposit or enrichment formed near the surface, commonly by descending solutions; also, said of those solutions and of that environment
syn-, syn-, sys-
together with

"syncline" - A set of folded, layered rocks dipping downward from opposite directions to come together in a trough.
trans-, tra-
across, over, through, cross, pass over

"transform" fault - point at which strike-slip displacements stop and another structural feature, such as a ridge, develops

"Trichroism" - characteristic of a crystal showing three different colors in transmitted light; limited to crystallization in the orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic systems
beyond, excess

"ultramafic" - said of an igneous rock composed chiefly of mafic minerals, e.g., monomineralic rocks composed of hypersthene, augite, or olivine

map "unit" - a geologic formation regarded as a single entity that shows up as a single unit on a geologic map
not one or another

"neutron" - an uncharged elementary particle with a mass that nearly equals that of the proton.
rock, stone

"lithosphere" - rigid outer layer of earth; includes crust and upper part of mantle. Relatively strong layer in contrast to underlying asthenosphere

"telemagmatic" - said of a hydrothermal mineral deposit located far from its magmatic source

"pyrometer" - an instrument that measures high temperature, e.g., of molten lavas, by electrical or optical means

"seismology" - scientific study of earthquakes and other earth vibrations
one thousand

"kilometer" - a length of 1,000 meters
around, beyond

"peripheral" fault - a fault along the perimeter of a geologically elevated or depressed region
place, region, place

"topography" - shape and physical features of land

"solar" system - sun with group of celestial bodies held by its gravitational attraction and revolving around it

"visible" spectrum - that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which the waves normally produce, upon the human eye, color sensations of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, or their intermediate hues, or of white light if the rays are combined.

"quadrivalent" - having a chemical valence of 4.
too much

"overbank" deposits - sediments (usually clay, silt, and fine sand) deposited on flood plain by river overflowing banks

"chromography" - in mineral identification, a polished section is placed in contact with photographic paper, a current is passed, and ions migrating to the paper are developed so as to produce a color print suitable for microscrutiny
spread out, in layers

"stratovolcano" - a cone-shaped volcano built from alternating layers of pyroclastics and viscous andesitic lava. Stratovolcanos tend to be very large and steep

"hydrothermal" - of or pertaining to hot water, to the action of hot water, or to the products of this action, such as a mineral deposit precipitated from a hot aqueous solution, with or without demonstrable association with igneous processes

"chronostratigraphical" unit - a body of rock established to serve as the material reference for all rocks formed during the same span of time. Each of its boundaries is synchronous
pull or drag

"traction" - process of carrying material along bottom of a stream. Traction includes movement by saltation, rolling, or sliding
change, turning

"geology" - organized body of knowledge about the earth, including physical geology and historical geology, among others
together, with

"symmetrical" fold - a fold whose limbs have the same angle of dip relative to the axial surface
astr-, astro-, aster-

"asterism" - s starlike effect observed in certain minerals either by transmitted or by reflected light
great age or remoteness in regard to time

"paleobotany" - the study of plants of past geological ages through the investigation of fossils
A prefix indicating pre-Tertiary origin, and generally altered character, of a rock to the name of which it is added, such as "paleopicrite"; by some the prefix has been applied to pre-Carboniferous rocks or features, such as the PaleoAtlantic Ocean
xen-, xeno-
strange, foreign

"xenolith" - an inclusion in an igneous rock not genetically related. OPPOSITE: autolith
egg; Pronounced o'-o

"oolitic" limestone - a limestone made up of small round spherules that look like eggs
leuko-, lecuo-

"leucocratic" - light-colored; applied to igneous rocks that are relatively poor in mafic minerals. The percentage of mafic minerals necessary for a rock to be classified as leucocratic varies among petrologists, but is usually given as less than 30% to 37.5%
dark or black

"melanocratic" -Applied to dark-colored rocks, especially igneous rocks, containing between 60% and 100% dark minerals

"neominerallization" - chemical interchange within a rock whereby its mineral constituents are converted into new mineral species; a type of recrystallization

"aerosol" - particles, solid or liquid, suspended in air