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50 Cards in this Set

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What were some problems w/ Russia?
rapid industrialization stirred discontent, Russia is an autocracy, and upper class resented foreign influence
How & Why did the Marxist party split?
1903, Lenin saw the need of a revolution, but some disagreed, Mensheviks wanted the revolution to wait until the proletariat grew, but the Bolsheviks & Lenin wanted to solve the problem now.
When & What was "Bloody Sunday"
Jan. 1905, workers wanted labor unions & a Duma, so they revolted & marched to Nicholas's winter palace, but were fired upon, not ordered by Nicholas
What were the results of "Bloody Sunday"
Workers started to strike, peasants burned homes of landowners, middle class wanted a Duma, so Nicholas issued the october Manifesto, which granted civil liberites & created the Duma
What was the Duma?
Was a legislative assembly, Peter Stolypin was the prime minister. 1907, the octoberists were in power & set up the kulkas class. these "octoberists" supported the tsar and the manifesto, while the kulkas were an elite peasant farmer class
March Revolution of 1917
women led food riots which took place in Petrograd, and the soldiers sided with the crowd. this led to nicholas's abdication & kernesky was put into power.
Provisional gov't
It was led by Alexander Kerensky, and also made up of educated liberals who wanted to continue the war, universal male suffrage, western-style parliament, and 8 hour work days
Fall of Provisional gov't
The provisional gov't lost the support of the army, so lenin came in w/ "peace, land, and bread"
When & where did the Romanovs die?
July 16, 1918 in Ekaterinburg
What is the April Theses & War Communism?
The april These presented war communism which was set out to control the state w/ harsh tactics. strikes were forbidden, private trade was abolished, crops were seized, gov't owned industry, churches, banks & other privately owned companies, and men under 50 drafted for labor or the army.
Whites, Red, Greens
Whites-Liberals & anti-communists
Reds-communists
Greens-peasants
after Lenin died, who wanted power?
Gregory Zinoviev, Lev Borisovitch Kamenev, & Joseph Stalin
Who were Zinoviev & Kamenev?
Zinoviev-Farmer who was educated. 1903, became a bolshevik but was purged in 1925
Kamenev-educated middle class who became a bolshevik in 1903 & was purged in 1925
STALIN!
Stalin became Lenin's successor. Wanted to make Russia economically dependent, industrialize through the 5-year plans, & wanted to keep country communistic.
What was the 5-year plans & its weknesses?
System of quotas to be met to keep up industrialization & established goals for every citizen. However, only heavy industry recieved resources, the quotas were unreal, quality suffered, & conditons also suffered.
Stalin's plans?
TO control agriculture to control surplus. He also employed many people, started free state medical services, ederly pensions, & stopped illiteracy. To ensure this, created totalitarian state w/ huis secret police & the Great Purge.
Toatlitarian vs. Dictatorship
T: want social & economic power through censorship, & secret police. Controlling everyday life
D: A single leader wants political power.
What is Fascism?
Everything was for the good of the state, so it stressed nationalism. ALl power was in one leader.
Why did fascism gain strength?
People were scared of communism in Russia, and also wanted to restore the glory of Roman Empire. Eventually they stormed Rome to gain power.
HOw did Mussolini build up a strong Italy?
Started w/ getting the children to admire "il Duce" and also organized Italy like a corporation.
How was the Weimar Republic broken up?
Executive Branch w/ President, chancellor, & a cabinet.
Legislative Branch w/ 2 houses (Reichstag & Reichstrat) & proportioal representation.
Important dates for Germany
1925-Locarno Treaty
1926 - TLON
1928 -Kellogg-Briand Pact
Kellogg-Briand Pact?
Pact signed by most countries that outlawed war.
Who was Sergei Kirov?
head of leningrad, was the most popular of stalin's adevisors, and was assassinated in 1934, which triggered stalin's paranoia and led to the great purge.
what happened in 1905 and 1917
1905-"Bloody" Sunday and the creation of the Duma
1917-March & Bolshevik Revolutions
What was the Dawes plan?
Charles Dawes was an american economist that came up with the idea to make Germany pay the debt over a longer period of time to ease their troubles.
Who were the Constitutional democrats in Russia?
Middle class businessmen and also known as Kadets, who were part of the Bolsheviks/Mensheviks?
What was the Politburo?
The general electing body under the soviet union.
Who were the Soviets?
Workers and soldiers who favored violent means to get their ideas expressed, and wanted the end of the war and radical reforms. These people became part of the bolshevik party.
What is the General Secretary of Communist Party?
The head of the Soviet Party
what is World Communism?
The spread of communism all over the world, which was Trotsky's idea, but both stalin and lenin were aginst it for now.
What were the Nuremburg laws?
Laws that officially made Jews economically and politcally inferior.
What is Supreme Soviet?
the ideology thats soviets were to be the dominat world power
How did the NEP modify Communism in Russia?
It was a compromise that allowed private ownership as long as there was less than 20 employees. It also allowed farmers to keep their surplus that they could then sell.
How did events between 1905 and 1917 produce the revolutions of 1917?
Nicholas didn't help the crime and conditions that resulted from the industrialization. The people also saw through the Duma b/c in the end the tsar had complete power so no reforms could be made. The war also hurt the country severely. In addition, the famine worsened and unions were still outlawed.
What are main points of the depression?
the taxes went up and the middle and lower classes were affected the most.
Mein kampf stressed what 2 main points?
Racism and that national borders should reflect ethnic borders.
What was the Popular Front?
Leon Blum headed the Popular Front to make many radical liberal reforms in France. Such as 2 weeks paid vacations, 40-hour weeks, and a minimum wage. Unfortunately there were little results due to the uncooperative industrialists.
What was the Nazi Economic Policy?
The policy of rearming that created many jobs for the unemployed, and placed the state in control of the industry.
Who was Ramsey MacDonald?
He was a Prime Minister who brought about many reforms such as taxes based on the ability to pay, so all classes were taxed.
Who was Chamberlain?
Chamberlain was the Prime Minister after MacDonald and pushed for appeasement of Germany.
Who was Deladier?
The French Premier who was a part of the Munich conference about the Sudetenland issue.
What are Keynesian economics?
Keynes was a diplomat at the WWI peace conference who predicted the bad conditions that Germany would face. The donward economics would not be worht the stripping of the country.
What was the Locarno Treaty?
In 1925, a bunch of countries got together to ease the tension. Germany was admitted into TLON. France & GB aslo got allies to be buffers around Germany.
what was kristallnacht?
November 9 & 10 which was a mass jew wrangling that resulted in millions of dollars of damage. It means "night of broken glass"
When did Mussolin & Hitler come into power?
Mussolini-1924
Hitler-1933
When was the Rhineland taken?
1936
What was life like under the Nazi rule?
Censorship was common, and only the Nazi party was allowed and worshipped. Jews also needed a license for their practice, there were no mixed marriages and as of Jan. 1 1939, they need to keep ID's on them at all times.
How did Hitler come into power?
Hitler was a very good speaker who appealed to everyone. He also introduced Mien Kampf. Hitler promised to win back lost lands, used Jews as a scapegoat for problems. The middle class turned to the nazis after they lost their savings & feared communism. 1933, appointed chancellor, and a convenient fire was blamed to be started by communists, so the Nazis gained power in the Reichstag and hitler evetentually received emergency powers through intimidtation.
How did Mussolini rise to power?
He formed the Fascist party and found followers among nationlaists, but then attracted many others. He also stressed anti-communism, which attracted many. Soon they started a violent campiaign against their opponents, which led to the march on rome and the elction as permier.