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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 2 pre-malignant skin lesions and two non-melanoma skin cancers
Pre-malignant lesions = actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ
Malignant = basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common type of pre-malignant skin lesion?
Actinic keratosis = 11-25% prevalance
What percentage of actinic keratosis progresses to NMSC?
What does actinic keratosis look like?
Erythematous, scaly papule that is superficial
What percentage of squamous cell cacinoma in situ (Bowen's disease) progresses to SCC?
5% but higher if in genital area
What does SCC in situ look like?
Well-defined, thin, erythematous, scaly plaque (larger than AK)
What is the most common human cancer?
Non-melanoma skin cancer
(1 in 3 whites, 2x more in males)
What percentage of NMSC is BCC and what percent is SCC?
BCC = 75%
SCC = 20%
(opposite in immunosuppressed)
What is the risk of developing a second NMSC?
50% in 5 years
What percentage of BCC and SCC metastasize?
BCC = 0
SCC = 3%
What are risk factors for developing NMSC? (6)
Genodermatoses (Albinism, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Nevoid BCC syndrome)
Precursor lesion (AK, SCC in situ)
Chronic skin disorders - SCC only (HPV, burns, scars, ulcers)
What are the risks of UVB and UVA?
UVB = Burning>aging>skin cancer
UVA = Aging>skin cancer (penetrates deeper and through windows)
What is the risk of developing skin cancer in transplant patients?
>50% in 20 years
Why is xeroderma pigmentosum a risk factor for developing skin cancer?
DNA repair gene malfunctional so more at risk for developing cancer from UV exposure
What does squamous cell carcinoma look like?
Firm, flesh-coloured or red, keratotic papule/plaque/nodule (raised)
What are different sub-types of basal cell carcinoma and what do they look like? (4)
Nodular: pearly, flesh-coloured papule or plaque with rolled border and possible telangiectasias
Superficial: Red dermatitic papule or plaque
Sclerosing: Scar-like, flesh coloured papule or plaque
Pigmented: Dark pigmented papule/plaque/nodule
How do you prevent non-melanoma skin cancer?
Sun protection = sunscreen, shade, protective clothing, avoid midday exposure
What percentage of UV rays are blocked with SPF 2, 4, 8, 15, 30 and 60 sunscreen?
2 = 50%
4 = 75%
8 = 87%
15 = 93%
30 = 97%
60 = 98%
How do you calculate SPF for sunscreen?
SPF= minimum erythema dose with sunscreen/minimum erythema dose without sunscreen
How do you treat non-melanoma skin cancer? (3)
Topical - 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod
Destroy without margins (scrape, burn, freeze, photochemical, irradiate)
Surgery with margins
What are options for destroying a NMSC without margins?
Scraping = curettage
Burning = electrosurger, laser
Freezing = cryotherapy
Photochemical = photodynamic therapy
Irradiation = Radiation
What are 2 types of surgical techniques used to remove non-melanoma skin cancer (with margins)?
Standard excision
Mohs micrographic excision - for high risk cancers of head and neck