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34 Cards in this Set

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What is biogeography?
The study of the geographical distribution of organisms. The distribution of organisms on the Earth is explainable by assuming that related forms evolved in one locale then they diversified as they spread out into other accessible areas.
What are homologous structures?
Structures that are anatomically similar because they are inherited from a common ancestor
What are analogous structures?
These are not always constructed similarly and they don't share a common ancestry
Who was Cuvier?
He was a zoologist who was the first to classify animals by comparative anatomy. He also founded the science of palentology. He was a catastrphist, which believed that mass castastrophes occurred. The result of these events caused changes over time
Who was Lamarck?
Lamarck was the first biologist to believe that evolution does occur and to link diversity with adaptation to the environment. He studied invertebrates. He supported the idea that the environment can bring about inherited change
What did Hutton believe?
The Earth was subject to slow but continuous cycles of erosion and uplift.
What is microevolution?
Evolutionary changes within a population, which is all the members of a single species occupying a particular area
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium?
1.No mutations
2.No gene flow
3.Random mating
4.No genetic drift
5.No selection
What is genetic drift?
Changes in allele frequencies of a gene pool due to chance. Some species may have a fixed allele because of chance.
Bottleneck effect
After a natural disaster occurs individuals who stay and "stick it out" are prevented from producing the next generation because their alleles are very similar
What is speciation?
Origin of new species due to the evolutionary process of descent with modification
Founder's effect
Rare or combinations of alleles occur at a higher frequency in a population isolated from the general population
What is gene flow?
The movement of alleles between populations by migration of breeding individuals
What is random mutation?
Mutations cause many gene loci to have multiple alleles. Recombination of these alleles increases the possibility of favorable phenotypes
Examples of nonrandom mating?
Inbreeding
Assortative mating?
Individuals tend to mate with those that have the same phenotype of a certain characteristic
Sexual Selection?
Males compete for the right to reproduce, and females choose to mate with males that have a particular phenotype
Biotic environment
competition, predation, and parasitism
Abiotic environment
weather depending on temperature and precipitation
What is natural selection?
Process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic and abiotic environments
Evolution by natural selection requires
1. Variation
2. Inheritance
3. Differential adaptiveness
4. Differential reproduction
Directional selection
An extreme phenotype is favored, and be distribution curve shifts in that direction
Stabilizing selection
Occurs when an intermediate phenotype is favored. Adaptation is constant usually
Disruptive selection
Two or more phenotypes are favored over any intermediate phenotype
What is convergent evolution?
The acquisition of the same or similar characters in distantly related lines of descent
What is divergent evolution?
The accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species
How old is the Earth?
Probably 10 billion years old
Prezygotic barriers isolating gene pools
1. Behavioral isolation - many animals have courtship patterns that allow males and females to recognize one another
2. Mechanical isolation - when animal genitalia or plant floral structures are incompatible, reproduction cannot occur
3. Hybrid sterility - the hybrid zygote may develop into a sterile adult
Postzygotic isolating mechanisms means:
after the formation of a zygote
What is allopatric speciation?
Origin of new species between populations that are separated geographically. This creates a barrier between other subspecies and some of the species don't mate because they are so genetically different
What is sympatric speciation?
A population develops into two or more reproductively isolated groups without prior geographic isolation. 2 different wheat species create one that isn't compatible with parents so it can only reproduce with its own kind
What is adaptive radiation?
This is a form of adaptive radiation in which several species evolve from a common ancestor into new ecological or geographical zones
The basis for phylogenic trees?
To find common ancestors and lines of descent between organisms
Mechanisms leading to the extinction of species?
1. Habitat loss
2. Colonization
3. Agriculture
4. Accidental transport
5. Pollution
6. Overexploitation