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384 Cards in this Set

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What is required for all children who are identified as disabled and require special services?
IEP - Individual Education Plan
Difficulties using expressive and receptive langusage, delays in pragmatics and problems with fluency, voice, and articulation
Speech/Language Impairment
Achievement is not commensurate with ablitites and demonstrates difficulties w/ listening, reasoning, memory, attention, social skills, perception, and processing information which may emerge w/ problems in reading, written language, math, and behavior.
Specific Learning Disablity
Conditions of medical problems w/ limited strength, vitality, and alertness such as diabetes, epilepsy, attention deficits, and disese.
Other Health Impariments
Physical problems such as cerebral palsy, muscular distrophy, and spina bifida, possibly requiring adapatations w/ devices and equipment.
Orthopedic Imprairments
Deficits in adaptive behaviors problems w/ learning related to congnition, difficlutlies w/ memory, issues w/ problem solving, delays in social skills, difficulties generalizing skills, and attention problems.
Mental Retardation
Difficulties processing linguistic information and using spoken language to communicate problems w. social relationships, deficits in emaotional maturity, and delays in academics.
Hearing Impairments
Exhibits inappropriate internalizing and externalizing behaviors, atypical emotions, and disruptive behaviors and lacks the skills for developing positive relationships.
Emotional Disturbance / Behavioral Disorder
Communication and language deficits inpaired social relationships often interacting w/ objects and people in unusual manners, exhibition of difficult behaviors and demonstration of limited intellectual functioning and atypical reactions to sensory stimuli
Autism
What has tremendous inpmact on social-emotional development.
Environment
What environmantal factors impact social-emotional development?
Parents, Gender, Sibblings, and Individual Temperment
What, other than environment, impacts social-emotional development?
Communication, Language, and Congnation
What areas in life are effected by language development?
reading, listening, writning, all academic subjects, and social relationships
The systematic use of sounds, signs, or written symbols for the purpose of communication or expression.
Language
The ablity to understand and comprehend information that is presented.
Receptive Language
Ability to communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas through words gestures, sign systems, assistive devices, and so on.
Expressive Language
Using movments of the mouth area to make speech sounds
Articulation
Psychanaytical
Freud
Moral Reasoning
Kohlberg
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner
Development that focuses on thinking and reasoning w/ specific clusters that are important in all aspects of learning.
Mental Skill Development - Cognition
A system of combining words into sentences w/ rules that govern how words work together in phases, clauses, and sentences.
Syntax
The meaning of language communicates; it governs vocabulary development.
Semantics
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use, such as in conversion.
Pragmatics
Social Learning
Bandura
Psychosocial
Erikson
Behaviorism
Skinner
Humanism
Maslow
What are the four areas of the Social/Emotional domain?
Self-Concept; Self-Confidence; Self-Esteem; and Self-Competence
Includes various behaviors, adaptive behavior deficits, disruptive behaviors, and withdrawl
Psychological
Includes affective behaviors, poor social skills, poor self-concept, poor motivation, and debilitating mood states.
Social
This affects all areas of development is the most significant, and can transform, through maturity, practice, and normal aging.
Cognitive Domain
Includes cognative and meta-cognitive deficits, low academic achievment, poor memory, attention problems, hyperactivity, and perceptual disorders.
Educational
Includes problems related to diseases, illness, trama, genetics, fine and gross motor skills, sensory imput, and sensory perception.
Medical/Physical
What is included in adaptive behavior? (3)
Self-help skills - feeding, dressing, toileting
Composite of abilities based on a child's age and the cultural moves of the family
Adaptive Behavior
Who are four of the theoriests that inpact physical development?
Gesell, Piaget, Ayres, Kephart
How muscles coordinate movments with the information recieved through the environment by the senses.
Perceptual Motor
Use of sensory information such as tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive
Sensory-Integration
Small muscle movment of the hands, fingers, feet, toes, face.
Fine Motor
Large Muscle movment such as in the torso, neck, arms, legs.
Gross Motor
What are the four areas of physical development?
Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Sensory-Integration, Perceptual Motor
The first area of growth and learning that a child experiences.
Physical Development
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner
Social-Cultural
Vygotsky
Difficulties in the areas of cognition, memory, attention, judgment, and problem solving, as well as physical and sensory changes, social, behavioral, or emotional problems.
Traumatic Brain Injury
Problems w/ developing language concepts impaired motor development and mobility, lack of social adjustment skills, and problematic relationship interactions.
Visual Impairment
When are children eligible for services?
The condition has a major impact of learning and a special program is mecessary to benefit from an education.
A syndrome related to neuralogical function that is evidence by deficits in social interactions, communications and patterns of behavior, various disorders in the group are differentiated by age of on-set and severity of symptoms.
Autism
The category refers to conditions that exhibit two or more of the following; an inablity to learn, an inablity to maintain relationships or exhibition of inapproprate behaviors, pervasive moods, or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears.
Emotional Disturbance / Beharioral Disorder
Defines an individual w/ significant subaverage general intellectual functioning concurrently w/ deficates in adaptive behavior manifesting during the developmental period and adversely affecting performance.
Mental Retardation
A physical impairment, caused by such conditons as genetic abnormalities, diseases, and trama, which adversely affect a students educational performance.
Orthopedic Impairment
Related to diseases or chronic health conditions a student w/ limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects educational performance.
Other Health Impairments
This refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process involved in understanding or in using language and may manifest itself in an imperfect ablity to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math.
Specific Learning Disablitiy
What are the three ways cognition can transform?
Maturity, practice, normal aging
What are the areas of human development? (4)
Social and Emotional; Language; Congnition; Physical and Sensory
How is it that individuals w/ the same disablities can differ in the way they learn?
1. Cognitive factors
2. Affective and Social-adaptive factors: cultural, linguistic, gender, socioeconomic
3. Genitic, medical, motor sensory and chronological age
This court case requires that children w/ disablities must be provided a free and appropriate education w/out execption.
1989 Timoth v. Rochester School District
This law provides funds specifically for students considered economically disadvantaged, limited English proficient, or disabled if also identified as gifted or talented.
Jacob K Javits - Gifted and Talented Education act -1988
What is the primary factor in the dignosis of mental retardation?
Lack of appropriate adaptive behavior skills.
Includes the combination of both auditory and visual disablities that are the cause of sever communication deficts and other learning problems, individual may need a combination of supplementary assistance.
Deaf-Bindness
A combination that may adversely affect the educational performance of students and includes deafness and hard of hearing.
Hearing Impairment
A combination of impairments that causes severe educational conditions that connot be accommodated in special education programs for only one disablity
Multiple Disabilites
Communication disorders that affect the educational performance in an adverse manner including stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairments, or voice imparments.
Speech/Language Impairment
Behavioral
Watson/Skinner
Cognitive
Piaget
Significant deficits in development
Developmental Disabilities
What are the 13 categories of disablities?
1. Autism
2. Emotional Disturbance/Behavior Disorder
3. Hearing Impairment
4. Mental Retardation
5. Orthopedic Impairment
6. Other Health Impairment
7. Specific Learning Disablity
8. Speech Language Impairment
9. Tramatic Brain Injury
10. Visual Impairment
11. Deaf-Blindness
12. Developmental Delay
13. Multiple Disablities
What are the 13 clusters of mental (cognition) skills?
1. Remembering
2. Using abstrations
3. Paying attention
4. Problem Solving
5. Making decisions
6. Labeling and naming
7. Organizing ideas
8. Conceptual develoment
9. Knowledge and recognition
10. Developing rules and generalizations
11. Refecting on judgments and evaluations
12. Understaning cause and effect relationships
13. Drawing inferences and understanding percptions
Communication disorders that affect the educational performance in an adverse manner, including stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairments, or voice impairments.
Speech/Language Impairment
An acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force that results in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairments that adversley affects educational performance and does not include brain injuries that are congenital, generative, or birth induced.
Traumatic Brain Injury
Includes any impairment of vision (totally blind, functionally blind, and low vision) that even with correction, adversely affects a students educational performance.
Visual Impairment
What is the most rapidly increasing category of exceptional students?
Autism (A)
Who is affected by Autism more? And at what rate?
Boys are 4 times as often affected.
What is the second largest category of exceptional students?
Communication Disorder
Who is affected by Communication Disorder more?
Boys
What is the 4th largest category of exceptional students?
Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder
What is the second largest group of students receiving services?
Gifted/Talented
What is the largest category of exceptional students being served?
Learning Disablity
What is the third largest category of exceptional students?
Mental Retardation
What category of exceptional students makes up 10% of the special education population?
Mental Retardation
Children in this category exibit two or more conditions of disablity, with one being a category or sensory impairment.
Multiple Disabilities
What is the most commonly acquired disablity?
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
What may be caused by neurobiological conditions, abnormal brain development, genetics, multiple biological causes, and environmental factors?
Autism
What is caused by biological factors (brain disorders, gentics, temperament), and environmental factors (home, community, school)?
Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder
What is caused by genetic factors, illness, prematurity, disease, or noise induced?
Hearing Impairment
What is caused by biomedical, enviroment, or unknowns that result from factors that occur in one of three stages: prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal?
Mental Retardation
What is caused primarily by illlness, disease, trauma, accident, or injury?
Orthopedic and Other Health Impairment
What is usually caused by brain damage, heredity, biochemical imbalance, and environment?
Specific Learning Disability
What is caused by damage or dysfunction of a specific parts of the body, environmental factors, cognitive impairments, hearing loss, brain injury, or disease?
speech/Language Impairment
What is caused by damages or changes in the optical, muscular, or nerve system, which may be related to diseases, trauma, malnutrition, or genetics?
Visual Impairment
How can some disablities be prevented? (10)
1. Porper and early medical care
2. Appropriate mother and child nutrition
3. Advances in medical treatments
4. Genetic counseling for families
5. Testing such as a PKU or amniocentesis
6. Environmental improvements
7. Early internvetion programs
8. Parent training programs
9. Elimination of childhood diseases, traumas, and accidents
10. Availability of vaccinations and immunizations
The measure of the length of time a student engages in a particular behavior
Duration
The measure of how problematic or complicates a particular behavior is
Degree of Severity
A reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior is w/held, so the behavior will decrease until it no longer exisits
Extinction
the amount of thime (how often) that a behavior reoccures.
Frequency
The degree to which a behavior is repeated
Intensity
The extent that a previously learned behavior continues after the intervention to support it has been ended.
Maintenance
List three of the more complicated multiple combinations of exceptionalities.
deaf-blindness, gifted-learning disabled, mental retardation-emotional disturbance
What transitions programs are avaliable for adults with exceptioal needs?
self-advocacy, problem solving, self-care, employment skills, community development, behavior management, leisure activities, and independent living
What are the quality of life issues in the community?
living, working, and recreational activities
What is the land-mark legislation that signifies a remarkable change in how the needs of execptional students were addressed in public school setting?
Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA or EHA) 1975
How many times has the EHA been amended and reauthorized?
5 times
IDEA
Individuals w/ Disablities Education Act
IDEIA
Individuals w/ Disablities Education Improvment Act
AKA IDEA 2004
What are the four key purposes of IDEIA?
1. The ensure all children w/ disablities are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education (FAPE)
2. To assist all states in establishing early intervention servies for infants and toddlers w/ disabilities.
3. To ensure that educators and paretns have the necessary tools to improve the education for all children w/ disablities.
4. To assess the effectivness of the education for children w/ disablities.
What are the six major principles of the IDEIA?
1. Zero reject (Child Find)
2. Protection in the evaluation process (non-bias testing)
3. Free and approprate public education (FAPE)
4. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
5. Due Process Procedures (Procedual Safeguards)
6. Parent and Student Particpation (Shared Decision Making)
No child with a disablity may be excluded from a public education
Zero reject (Child Find system)
Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation must be conducted, which includes procedures followed and tools utilized.
Non-bias testing
The education of students w/ disibilities must be at the public expense based on the development of an IEP that includes related services
Free and Apppropriate Public Education (FAPE)
Children w/ disablities must be educated w/ non-disabled children to the maximum extent appropriate and a contimuum of placement services must be imposed.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Requires parent and student rights regarding assessment, placement, and service implementation of education program be instituted.
Due Process Procedures (Procedual Safeguards)
Parents and students (as appropriate) must be included in the special education process helping to make plans and decisions.
Shared Decision Making
What are 4 changes found in the IDEIA?
1. Paperwork reduction
2. Shor-term objectives and benchmarks eliminated from IEPs
3. Implementation of comprehensive and multiyear (3-year) IEPs
4. Focus on highly qualified teachers to align IDEA with NCLB
What does IDEIA-Part B focus on? (6)
1. Students with disablities ages 3-21
2. Educational programs in public schools settings
3. Educators, staff, and other school professional providing services
4. Yearly evaluations and an annual review of a student's program
5. Participation in transition services from Part C
6. An IEP that describes the individual student's needs
What does IDEIA-Part C focus on? (6)
1. Students with disablities ages birth - 3 years
2. Family and child services in natural environments, such as the home
3. A service of case manager to coordinate the necessary services
4. Evaluations two times per year with regular reviews
5. Particitation in the transitition services to Part B
6. An ISFP to describe the child's and family's needs
Extends civil rights to individuals with disablities focused on prohibiting discrimination in education, employment, and othe rcommunity settings; requiring compliance by any recipient of federal funds even though these requirments aren not monetarily supported by the federal government.
Section 504 (Rehabilitation Act of 1973)
Based on Section 504, it extends civil rights to individuals with disablities in private sector employment, public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. These employment and public service entities must accommodate persons w/ disablities in an appropriate and nondiscriminatory manner.
ADA (Americans with Disablities Act 1990)
Protects the privacy of all students' educational records and applies to any and all schools receiving federal funds.
FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act)
Allows funding to support the exceptional needs of students in the areas of identification, education, and programming.
Gifted and talented Children's Education Act 1978
Merged the gederal Office of Gifted and talented w/ other gederal prgrams and states received block grants to determine which programs and students to support.
Education Consolidation Act 1982
Case based on the segregation of students according to race, it was tried at the supreme Court who ordered that education mut be on equal terms for all children.
Brown v Board of Education 1954
Case that determined that financial problems cannot be a reason for the lack of approprite programs to children with disablities.
Mills v Board of Edu 1972
Case determined the tracking system for regular and special education students based on intelligence scores was discriminatorily unconstitutional for some populations of students and could not be used.
Hobson v Hansen 1967
Case established the right for all children with mental retartdation to a free public education.
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v the Commonwealth of Pennsylvaina 1972
Case ordered schools to provided extended school year services for students w/ disablities who may regress over long periods w/out attending formal school programs.
Armstrong v Kline1979
Case ruled that IQ tests could not be used as the primary or sole basis of placing students in special programs
Larry P. v Riles
Case upheld that each child w/ a disablity has the right to an individualized program and supportive services deemed appropriate and necessary
Board of Edu of the Hudson School District v Rowley 1982
Case ruled that the training and education for a student with multiple disablities required in private residential placement would be supported through district funds.
Abrahamson v Hershman 1983
Case ruled that homebound instruction for a student w/ multiple health problems did not comply with the LRE and required the studnet be placed in a class with non-disabled children and receive the necessary related medical services.
Department of Edu v Katherine D. 1984
Case forced the school to provide non-physician required medical services to allow a physically impaired student to attend school
Irving Independent School District v Tatro 1984
Case ruled that students w/ disablities may not be excluded for misbehavior that is disability-related, but servies could cease if the behavior was not related to the disablity
Honig v Doe 1988
Case upheld that all children w/ disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate public education w/out exception
Timothy v Rochester School District 1989
Case determined that a student in a parochial school should be provided the assistand of a related service pertaining to the diability and that these findings did not violate the constitution of the separation of church and state.
Zobrest v Catalina School District 1993
Case ruled to support a family preference to educate a child w/ mental retardation in the general education classroom
Oberti v Board of Edu
Case affirmend that public schools are not obligated to provide special education services if parents choose to place their child in a private school
Foley v Special School District of St. Louis County 1998
Case ruled that medical services necessary to a student w/ a disability to access and benefit from special education must be provided by the school as long as the service does not require a physician.
Cedar Rapids v Garrett F 1999
The process of supporting the abilities of and promoting the causes for persons with exceptional needs.
Advocacy
The phenomenon of the biased reactions to those with disablities.
Handicapism
What are 2 critical factors in sustaining positive situations for individuals with exceptional needs.
Awareness and acceptance
What are the three areas of community based placement?
residential, employment, recreation
Specific devices, equipment, and services based on assessment of the student with the disiability.
Assistive Technology
When does a transition plan have to begin for a student with a disability?
Age 16
What must be included in a transition plan?
The activities and resources needed to support the student's movement from school to adulthood
Term for the legal age that a student becomes an adult.
Majority Age
These theorists believe that an individual constructs the acquistion of new information and skills based on prior knowledge.
Cognitive
This theory examines the internal mental processes that include problem solving, memory, and language while focusing on how people understand, analyze, and solve problems.
Cognitive
According to the __ theory instruction must be delivered at the student's academic level in managed environment while allowing the student to develop the necessary skills and learn to generalize them.
Cognitive
The instructional application of the __ theory includes the strategies of addressing styles of learning, encouraging metacognition, teaching learning strategies, using peer toutoring, providing scaffolded instruction, analyzing behavioral temperaments, and understanding the socail context of learning.
Cognitive
This theory states that the learner is an active process in which the learner must be involved.
Constructionist
Which theory is based on Piaget's ideas of experiential learning where individules are engaged in actively creating things and constructing mental models.
Constructionist
This theory suggests that students be involved in experimentation and hands-on learing while the teacher is the facilitatior of the educational experiences
Constructionist
Examples of this theory include the inquiry-based learning most often used in science and math instruction.
Constructionist
This theory is the study of human behavior based on motivation and drives, and the functional significance of emotions.
Psychodynamic
According to this theory an individual's personality and her reactions to situations are the result of interactions within her mind, genetic constitution, emotional state, and environment.
Psychodynamic
This theory is based on the premise that human behaviors and relationships are shaped by both conscious and unconscious infulences.
Psychodynamic
This theory enphasizes a systematic approach to learning and instructions.
Behavioral
This theory incorporates the ABC model of instruction, which stands for antecedent or stimulus, target behavior or response, and consequences of reinforcement.
Behavioral
Examples of this theory include the development of an IEP and the use of functional behavior assessments (FBA) and behavior intervneiton plans (BIP)
Behavioral
This theory believes that learning behaviors can be observed, measured, and documented.
Behavioral
Theory base on student observation in order to gain knowledge. Individuals may learn from watching others, educators should provide modeling and demenstrations that allow students to learn through observation.
Sociological
Who is known for the social or sociological theory?
Bandura
This theory is based on the study of how humans may development within their specific environments. From the influences of home, school, and the community along with interaction among these factors, the learning and development of an individual are impacted.
Ecological
This theory focuses on how social experiences and culture affect an individual's development and future success.
Ecological
Theory base on student observation in order to gain knowledge. Individuals may learn from watching others, educators should provide modeling and demenstrations that allow students to learn through observation.
Sociological
The family systems theory is a classic example of the ecological influences and how academic success is related to these experiences.
Ecological
Who is known for the social or sociological theory?
Bandura
This theory ia a collaborative approach that utilizes the expertise of specific realated service providers such as the speech-language pathologist, the occupational therapist, the physical therapist, and medical personal, as appropriate. It focuses on the specific needs of the exceptional student across all educational settings, and therapy may be conducted and interventions implemented through a rich array of reach-in and pull-out models.
Therapeutic
This theory is based on the study of how humans may development within their specific environments. From the influences of home, school, and the community along with interaction among these factors, the learning and development of an individual are impacted.
Ecological
This theory focuses on how social experiences and culture affect an individual's development and future success.
Ecological
The family systems theory is a classic example of the ecological influences and how academic success is related to these experiences.
Ecological
This theory ia a collaborative approach that utilizes the expertise of specific realated service providers such as the speech-language pathologist, the occupational therapist, the physical therapist, and medical personal, as appropriate. It focuses on the specific needs of the exceptional student across all educational settings, and therapy may be conducted and interventions implemented through a rich array of reach-in and pull-out models.
Therapeutic
At what age are states mandated to implement services for children in early childhood settings?
Ages 3-5
Name 9 people who could be on the IEP team.
Parents
Student
Regular Ed Teacher
Spec Ed Teacher
School Representative
Evaluator
Therapists
Community Agency Personnel
Others w/ Knowledge or Expertise that pertain to student's needs.
Team members working together to enhance the educational programs to exceptional students
Collabrative Teaming
A simple form of collaboration that includes communication and cooperation so students services are ensured delivery. Professionals may not directly share their expertise, information, or ideas w/ one another, but they do provide updates on the progress of the student.
Coordination
The process in which professionals work with one another by directly communicaiton and sharing expertise to improve services to students. Teachers and other professional share strategies and methods to help the student access the educational program.
Consultation
An effective tool for inclusion settings. When two or more teachers work together to plan activities, deliver instruction, and assess students, additional supports are provided to all students in the classroom, thereby improving achievment.
Co-teaching
What are the three team models?
Multidiscplinary Team
Interdisciplainary Team
Transdisciplinary Team
Professionals with defined roles, working independently of one another. This in not an encouraged practice as it promotes fragmentation of student programs. Thes team members often conduct separate assessments, deliver services independent of others, and work withthe families apart from other professionals. The team may exhibit a lack of communication or understanding of the student's needs.
Multidisciplinary Team
Members conduct independaent assessments, this team works to promote communication and collaboration. This team uses more formal communication efforsts by meeting together to share information and develop a plan of interventions and strategies to enhance student educational success. Team members implement their portion of the program, while remaining in contact with other members.
Interdisciplinary Team
This team model demonstrates coodinationand involvment, however, due to schedules and the numbers of professionals involved, it may be difficult to achieve this team status. This team delivers services in an intergrated approach across disciplines, to include assessment, sharing information, program development, and implementation interventions, while including the family at all stages. Members work together sharing roles and responsiblities unlike other teams, who work in isolation.
Transdisciplinary Team
A range of placement and service options for students with special needs. It includes discussion fo where students will recieve special education services, what the necessary related services are, and how they will access their education.
Continuum of services
The setting for service delivery that most closely resembles a reagular school program whild meeting the student's exceptional needs.
Least Restrictive Environment
LRE
Least Restrictive Environment
What model does the general education classroom belong to? (2)
Inclusive Model and Consultative Model
What model does co-teaching belong to?
Collaborative model
What model does the resource room belong to?
Pulling Model, Integrated Model
What model does self-contained program belong to?
Separate, Segergated
What model does separate school belong to?
Private Setting
__ __ may include transportation, speech therapy, physical therapy, counseling, behavior coach, or a paraprofessional. They are used to provide additional services in order to access and benfit students in special education.
Related Services
Instructional supports or services necessary to access instruction or the learning environment and to demonstrate individual knowledge, These supports and services may not change the curriculum or the subjects covered, but my reduce the barriers caused by a deficit or disablity, providing an "equal opprotunity" to students with exceptional needs.
Accomodations
This includes actual changes made to the curriculum, to the environment, or to the expectation of an instructional task in order to meet the student's specific needs. These changes are often imposed when the task is above the student's ablity level, so they reduce the expectations or content to support the severity or type of disability.
Modification
Is used in referance to facalities and equipment and may be reflected under requirments of Section 504. They may make changes in how the studetn accesses the envirment or in instructional delivery.
Adaptations
Rights for children w/ disabilites and their parents.
Procedural Safeguards
If parents believe that a free and appropriate public education is not being provided to their child w/ a disability the may file for a __ __ __
due process hearing.
Many states encourage parents that feel that a free and appropriate public education is not being provided to their child w/ a disability to reslove their issues in a preliminary process called the __ __ or __ before requesting at legal due process hearing.
complaint process or mediation
Demenstrates student interactions in the environment in order to instruct students in functional and age appropriate skills.
Behavioral-based curriculum
Provides age appropriate activites that are discovery-based and interactive, such as DAP
Congnitive-develoment curriculum
Uses functional skills training and support transition into the community
Life-skills currriculum
Improves social skills area such as engaging in personal interactions, following direction, sandling situations, increasing self-cometence, and utilixing approprate behaviors
Social Skills curriculum
Helps develop knowledge and skills to support independence in school, community, employment, personal, social, and daily living situations.
Functional Curriculum
Supports services for school aged children3-21
IEP
Prepared for families and children ages birth through 3
Individual Family Service Plan
An additional component of an IEP for studnets ages 16-21
Individual Transition Plan
What are the 7 components that must be included in an IEP?
1. statement of present levels of educational peroromance pertaining to disability
2. Statement of measurable annual goals and may include objectives
3. Description of the method to measure progress
4. Statement of related services, supplementary aids, and services
5. Explanation of the extent of involvment in general education programs
6 Statement of accommodations and participation in state and district testing
7. Description of the date, frequency, lacation, and duration of services
This plan is pupport for the entire family of an infant who exhibits a development delay.
Individual Family Service Plan - IFSP
IFSP
Individual Family Service Plan
This plan outlines family goals, indentifies the service providers and establishes the specific service.
Individual Family Service Plan
Every __ months a family has the option to accept or decline continued services under the IFSP.
Six
This plan includes student's needs, interests, and preferences. The student, parents, and approroiate community partners are involved in this process. The areas addressed include employment, continued education, daily living, health, leaisure, communication, and self-determination/advocacy.
Individual Transition Plan - ITP
ITP
Individual Transition Plan
What is required for all students, with disiblities, ages 16 and over?
Individual Transition Plan
It extends the lesson for those capable of more, which may help setudents with learning disablities, autism, deafness, blidness, orthopedic impairments and emotional disablities.
Enrichment
Various strategies to each and reinforce skills to those meading more practice.It is particulary helpful to those with menatal retardation, deafness, speech-language problems, other health impaired and traumatic brain injury.
Remediation
Curriculum that is responsive to the needs of the studnet, based on there individual strengths and allows them opprotunitie sto ues their exceptional abilities, talents, and skills.
Differentiated Curriculum
A modification of the pace allowed for the student to proceed.
Acceleration
The teacher provided the information and content to support the learning process
Explicit instruction
The focus is on the student as an active and involved learner who constructs knowledge by using previousl learned information.
Implicit Instruction
Placment of students in educational activities according to performance and academic achievement levels
ability grouping
An adjustment that enables a student to participate in educational activities
adaptation
A measure of the engagement of the learner in tasks and activities
active student response
A change made to the environment or curriculum
adaptation
Instruction using real-world projects and activites to allow students to discover and explore in a more relevant manner
authentic learning
The breaking down of a task into compnent parts so a student finishes the task by starting with the first step in the sequence and performing each component progressivel until the task is completed
chained response
A technique in which student performance is reinforced so the student will continue to perform more complex tasks in the sequence
chaining
Oral response of students (in unison) to a question or problem presented by the teacher
choral responding
A strategy that allows a student to remember and organize large amounts of information
chunking
The use of semantic and syntactic clues to aid in completing sentences
cloze procedure
The ability for students to demonstrate concept knowledge by applying the niformation to other settings w/out prompts from teacher.
concept generalization
Techniques used to aid in the organization and delivery of curriculum such as guided notes, graphic organizers, mnemonics and visual displays
content enhancements
A strateg for helping a studnet and eventuall fading out the support as he gains mastery
contingent teaching
Classroom is divided into groups to work together to complete a task of particpate in an activity
cooperative learning
Provides assistance to ensure adequate support of instruction
cues and prompts
Individualizing instruction to develop stengths and remediate weaknesses
diagnostic-prescriptive method
To address to varying abilities, strengths, and needs of learners and their stles of learning by imposing a choice of learning activity, task that suit the learning style, student groupings, authentic lessons, and problem-based activities
differentiated instruction
A systematic approach of teaching with specific goals, active learner engagment, and positive reinforcement for student performance (snonmous with explicit instruction).
direct instruction
Checking on studnet achievement during a period for a specific opportunity to perform and recording the response
direct measurment
Students engage in active learning with lessons designed and overseen by the teacher but managed by the students
facilitated groups
a measure that encourages practice of skills to improve the accuracy and rate of use
fluency building
The ability to use skills learned across various settings
gereralization
a visual-spatial organization of information to help students understand presented concepts
graphic organizers
Providing opprotunites to gain knowledge by offering cues, prompts, or added sequential information
guided practice
Specific areas or activities that enhance the curricular content and allow independent or small group instruction
learning centers
An approach that teaches students how to learn and remember particular content.
learning strategy
A procedure that provides cues and promts while gradually removing them so students can perform and respond independently
mediated scaffolding
A strategy that enhances memory thorugh key words, acronms, or acrostics
mnemonics
A method that helps make connections between the material to be learned and the process to learn it by acting out sequences while students observe and them imitate the task
modeling
Changing the content, material, or delivery of instruction
modification
The nine areas of learing that are addressed in classroom instruction: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential
multiple intelligence straegies
Procedures that involve activites interesting to students with naturally occuring consequences
naturalistic teaching
Under the guidance of a teacher, a non-disabled student with competencies in a particular area works witha student w/ a disablity who needs assistance to enhance an area of study
peer tutoring
An approach that ientifies the skills to be taught and uses direct daily measure of the student's performance to acquire the skills
percision teaching
A technique in which a visual, auditory, or tactile cue is presented to facilitate the completion of a task or a perform a behavior
prompting
A program technique to teach students to overcome an exceptionality through training and education
remediation
Continual work on a specific silss or content concept to help build rote memory skills
repetition
A method that allows all students to answer simultaneously by using signs, cards, or items held up to demonstrate responses
response cards
Applying stages to learning content and tasks by first observing the student to see what she can do and then helping her understand the how and wh until she can perform herself (direct instruction, tutoring, modeling, independence.)
scaffolding
Repetition and practice of new skills until the learner performs w/out cues and prompts
skill and drill
A planned, sequential instruction to show similarities and differences between acquired and new knowledge
strategic instruction
Providing positive reinforcement and confirmation to improve learning
systematic feedback
A strategy in which the goals are broken into smaller steps and sequenced while keeping the learner's pace in focus
task analysis
A procedure that improves fluency of new skills through time limits
time trial
Providing instructional prompts to aid in correct responses
transfer of stimulus control
The concept that everything in the environment, in learning and in products, should be accessible to everyone.
universal design
An addation strategy for single digit numbers.
Make a ten
Math strategy that is a precursor to multiplication
skip counting
A math strategy that is a prerequiseite to substraction
counting backward
An addation strateg used to estimate when adding large digit numbers
front end addation
Toni is a 7th grade student classified with a specific learining disability. Her science teacher states that she is an active praticipant in class, complets homework on time, but her reading comprehension is below grade level. A chapter test is planned for next week. What is an apprropriate accommodation for Toni?
read the test to her
What is the purpose of a peer buddy?
keeping a student on task
Who would benifit for high-intrest, low-reading-level assignments?
Students not on reading level
What is required before a behavior intervnetion plan (BIP) can be developed?
(FBA) Functional Behavioral Assessment
Under IDEA, what age group is qualified to recied early-intervention services?
birth-2 years
Which co-teaching model involves the lead teacher and support teachers each deliverin a lesson to a separate group of students?
Parallel teaching
Co-teaching model occurs when the lead teacher presents a group lesson to the class and the support teacher assists of pulls a small group for instruction.
Complementary Teaching
Co-teaching that uses remedial or enrichment lessons delivered to the whole class.
Alternative teaching
Co-teaching technique that involve both teachers presenting the lesson simultaneously to the whole class
Shared teaching
Characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics
tourette syndrome
The following exceptionalities areas, autism, emotional disiblities, gifted-talented, hearing and vision impairment, learing disablities, and mental retardation, need focused instruction on what?
social skills
The ability of an individual to maintain control of one's self and to generalize skills learned across various settings.
Self-managment
Instruaction that helps students learn to generalize skills more quickly, allows for social interactions, permits more flexible involvment w/ the hteacher, and helps studnts learn from peers.
Small group instruction
Dressing, toileting, edating, using simple sight words, managing self in a familiar environment, making independant choices, and handling small purchases.
Functional Needs Skills
Focuses on basic educational concepts that may be useful in daily life, such as basic reading using survival sight words, basic math involving money and time, and basic writing like name, address, and telephone number.
Fuctional academics
Emphasisxw the skills necessary to perform adequately in the community and is most often used with students who have mental retardation, autism, and other moderate to severe conditions.
Functional curriculum
The independant living skills considered inportant for self-care, social circumstances, employment, vocational situations, and recreational activities
Functional Skills
The skills used to make a basic need or desire known
Functional Language
The level of communiction and language that a person needs to likve independently in the community
Functional Literacy
Students who face barriers wiht langusge and culture in addition to their exceptional need. The aneed curriculum that is responsive to the cultural heritage, ethnic backgrounds, and linguistic differences.
ESL - English as a Second Language
Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, which is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disablities.
Assistive Technology
A set of strategies that aid a student to meet communitication needs through symbols and other transmission devices.
Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC)
Supports students with disablities whou have oral language problems
augmentative technology
a tyoe of commyincation in which a person provides assistance to a student by pointing to symbols or letters
facilitated communication
Provides drill and practice for studnets who have problems in the basice skill areas and with motivation issues
instructional technology
For use with students who exhibit reading problems
oral reading software
Replaces the peyboard and the imput device
voice recognition system
Converts test from a computer into sound
voice synthesizer
To support students with written expression deficits
word processing software
What is the primary purppose of an assessment?
To determine the specific needs of the student (present level of educational perfomance) and to identify the instructional strategies and methods that would provide the most benefit to the academic achievment of the student
What are som additional purposes of assessment?
to determine the nature of the problem,
to dcecide the need for related services
to target skills or identify content areas
to ascertain which factors support learning
to manage the data related to instruction
What are the 7 steps of the assessment process?
1. Pre-referral
2. Screening
3. Referral
4. Evaluation and Identification
5. Instructional program planning
6. Placement
7. Review and evaluation
The initial step of the special education procedures, it begins the assessment process. It helps the teacher to more specifically identify a student's problem areas. Student is provided interventions, if they help referral is concluded, if there is no progress the process moves to the next step
Pre-referral
Professionals provide a quick and simple test that covers basic skills and gathers additional information that may detect a student who is in need of a more comprehensive evaluation and possible support of special education services
screening
Professionals use information from a variety of sources, conduct an observation to study classroom performance and behaviors and then refer for further evaluations
referral
This step necwssitates a coprehensive evaluation by professionals to deremine the student's disablity and possible eligibiliyt for special education services. Timelines are imposed and requirments for the types of measurment tools must align w/ federal law.
Evaluation and identification
This is conducted by a team and is an evaluation of a student using a variety of test instruments and procedures
multifactored assessment
Assessment infomation is essential for this in order to create goals, determine placement, and make plans for instructional delivery. the team meets to share results of the evaluation and make critical decisions about the student and the services
Instructional program planning
After the team designs the instructional program (IEP), decisions about the LRE and specifications about the services are made, and the program is implemented
placement
Monitoring the progress of a student according to the IEP is required in order to develop regular progress reports and adjust the IEP. Formal, informal or alternate measurements are used.
reivew and evaluation
A formal tool used to measure student knowledge or proficiency in a subject or topic area
achievement test
This is a frequencypbased measure used to determine a spudent's praticpation rate during an instructional period
active student resopnse
An information measurement of teacher notes based on observation of student work and performance, often used in parent conferences
anecdotal record
a formal measure of standardized or norm-referenced test that evaluate a studnt's ability to acquire skills or gain knowledge
aptitude test
An informal method of determining a studnet's comprehension and performance of a skill, particularly wsind in classroom assessments of specific criteria
Authentic assessment
A formal measure that evaluates a studnet on specified information, most often used to check a student's knwoledge on subject area by answering specific questions and does not compare one studnt to another.
Criterion-referenced test
Evaluates student progress and performance of skills based on the curriculum and lessons presented, helping teachers determaine how to assist the studnet and share with parents.
Curruculum-based measure
Involves the use of an informal observation of the student interacting with the environment durning a regular schedual.
Ecological-based assessment
The process of gathering information about problem behaviors of an individual student and used to evaluate the need for behavior intervention and a behavior plan
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
A norm-reerenced test used to assess a student's learning abilities or intellectual capacity as it measures cognitive behaviors.
Intelligence test (IQ)
Formal toll referred to as a standardized test is used when comparing a student to other perrs in the same age group, primarily helpful in developing curriculmn and indentifying interventions needed
Norm-referenced test
Teachers or professionals watch a student in several setting and take notes regarding performance and behaviors, particularly helpful in developing behavior plans and for use in comprehensive assessments
observation
An informal measure used by teachers to assess a studnt's ablility to coplete a task specific to a topic of subject area, such as a mathematic equation or an oral report
performance assessment
An informal method of gathering information based on copleted products (art work or compositions) over a period of time. Particuarly helpful for evaluating progress and sharing information w/ parents
portfolio assessment
Formal evaluation and either a criterion-referenced or norm-referenced test, it measures progress toward meeting goals of standards as perviously established by district or state
standards-based assessment
Informal procedure is used to assess studnt achievement and teacher instruction
summative evaluation
Involves the use of teaching methods and strategies that are visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic, as then address all styles of learning
multimodal approach
Inappropriate behavior (aggressive or disruptive) considered more damaging and serious than other behaviors
acting out behavior
Method of behavior scrutiny to determine how and why student responds to certain events, situations, or the environment and allows for a training component of rewards and reinforcements to help the student learn the target behavior
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Public school option that may be utilized when a student cannot function in the traditional public school system due to uncontrolled behaviors or due to a disruption that caused a suspension or expulsion
Alternative school placement
Stimulus used in behavior managment and behavior modification that occurs prior to the behavior and establishes the reason for the behavior
antecedent
Strategies or actions used to extinguish, change, or redirect an inappropriate behavior; three types are postive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and averive intervention
behavior intervention
An evaluation tool that lists specific observable behaviors to assess the severity, frequency and type of exhibited behaviors completed by staff, parents, or studnet
behavior rating scales
Stimulus that follows a behavior action used in hehavior managment of behavior modification to increase or decrease the behavior
consequences
Written agreement between the student and teacht that outlines the expected performance and the consequences or reinforcers used
contingency contract
Strategy in which the fuction or task is broken down into steps that are rewarded innediately in a trial-by-trial basis
discrete trial training
team review of the relationship between a student's inappropriate behabior and the diablilty, required under IDEIA whan a student violates a code of conduct
manifestation determination
Use of imitation to set in place the desired behaviors
modeling
Used in behavior modification in which the studnet is motivated to use a desire behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence
negative reinforcement
When a behavior continues repeatedly beyond the typical endpoint and the studnet demonstrates difficulty switching tasks
perseveration
Used in behavior modificaitons in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior because of the reward to be obtained
positive reinforcement
Application of a learned behavior or skill to another setting
response generalization
the behavior selected for intervention, most often to be extinguished or changed, although it may be a postive behavior that should be used in other school situations
target behavior
What is the primary role of the special education teacher?
Manage the IEP team
Implement the IEP
Provide accommodations to general education
support the student and other teachers
What is the basic role of the general eduaciton teacher?
Instruct students according to district standards
What is the "mild" IQ range for mental retardation?
50-75
__ conditions affect students in the development and mastery of skills that can be diagnosed at different age levels as students mature and experience more complex tasks. Young children may have problems with mrmory, early basic academics, listening and assteion, and loder students esperience problems with organizing and gaining study skills, developing work skills, managing self, and completing more complicated academic tasks
Mild
__ conditions exhibit extensive needs in one or more areas, and the diasblitiy affects the studnt not only durning school, but in all aspects of life. These students need constatn appropriate support and opprotunities to gain daily coping skills
Moderate
Name four reasons assessments are used
1. Evaluate skills, habits, and talents
2. Link information to assessment
3. Measure progress in achievement
4. Improve behaviors
PLEP
Present Level of Educational Performance
Most students categorized w/ __ disablities can be educated in and served in the general education classroom.
mild
Students with leraning disablities, mental retardation, beharioral disorders, and speech/language disorders are considered students w/ __ disiablities.
mild
Students with __ disablities require some different teaching methods and different placements.
moderate
These students often demonstrate a lack of motivation and interes in school.
moderate disabilities
What kind of program offers the best selection of options for studnets with mild-moderate disabilities
Inclusion
Name some accommodation or modifications
1. alter the amount or tack required
2. change response mode of questions
3. use peer tutoring system
4. utilize cloze procedures
5. establish learning centers
6. vary auditory and visual activities
7. break tasks into smaller units
8. highlight information
9. use tape recorded text
10. use advance organizers or daily schedules
11. provide directions in multiple formats
A teaching routine or method in which the steps, techniques, or activities are grouped in a logical manner to promote and reinforce academic achievment.
Instructional strategy
Helps students by giving them hints or suggestions to enhance learning by performing a task or gaining a skill
coaching
Students work together to gain knowledge and enhance social skills
cooperative learning
This is a stimulus or reminder for the studnet to perform the correct response
cueing
Helps students acquire and retain information through a visual format
graphic organizer
Activities related to goals in which students can practice the concepts and skills under the supervision of the teacher, through homework, or with a small group of students. May include review, organizing information, rehersing, summarizing, comparing, and so on.
Guided practice
A strategy that teaches a skill or concept during an event or situation in which is is presently occurring
incidental teaching
a more skilled person performs the task, activity, or project for a person less skilles so that person may learn to perform the same
modeling
the teacher is costatntly involved in the student's work to observe the progress and identify areas of concern
monitoring
Student skilled in certain concepts, tasks, or behaviors help less skilled students learn the information
peer tutoring or peer instruction
Helps sudents recall prior knowledge and background information as well as previous experiences about a topic. It prepares them through the introduction of vocabulary and concepts when presenting a new subject. Ways to utilize this strategy is through field trips, videos, experiment, and so on
preteaching
Helps students learn skills, concepts, information, and new ideas by completing a task after viewing the modeling of the teacher or other students. The teacher may then provide coaching, cueing, or scaffolding as the student engages in the activity
reciprocal learning
thes are strategies that support a student as he acquires knowledge, skills, or gain concepts
scaffolding
A task is broken into segments or steps and the student copletes the activity by completing one step at a time until the entire task is done
sequencing
This is the begining stage of task completion, as is it an approxmaiton of the targeted behavior. The student is rewarded when repeatedly attempting the mastery of the task
shaping
Goals must be both __ and __ during the program year.
measurable, attainable
Use of brain research and the suggested techniques
brain-compatible instruction
Includes a set of designed instructional steps with demonstration, guided practice, and feedback essential
direct instruction
Teaching basic life skills in a meaningful and practical manner
Functional curriculum approach
Giving students a set of methods to help them improve their own ability to learn
learning strategies method
Including all the senses to make learning more effective
multisensory instruction
When the teacher or learner records responses on a standardized chart
precision teaching
Focus on student's developmental needs related to learning and her whole self.
student-centered learning
Breaking down tasks into smaller parts and teaching each as a separate skill
task analysis approach
A method to record behaviors over a specific period of time
charting
When conduction an observation of behaviors, this method allows the observer to measure the length of time for the behavior
duration recording
when conducting an observation, the beharior is recorded each time it occurs
event recording
A description of the predicted function and analysis of the behavior
hypothesis
During an observation, this is the measurement of whether a behavior occurs in a specified period
interval recording