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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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absorbed prefixes
known as assimilated prefixes
When the spelling and the sound of the consonant in a prefix has been assimilated into the same spelling and sound at the beginning of the base or root to which the prefix is affixed. (e.g., ad-tract, attract)
accented syllables
The one syllable that is emphasized, stressed or accented in most words of two or more syllables. The two types of stress mark are primary and secondary. (e.g., record, record)
affix
A suffix or prefix attached to a base word, stem or root
4. antonyms
Words that are opposite in meaning. (e.g., wet, dry)
5. automatcity
The speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling word. Word study instructional goal. Students do not have to decode it.
6. base word
A word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added. Base word stands alone.
7. blend
The orthographic term referring to consonant blends. A spelling unit of two or three consonants that retain their identity when pronounced. You are able to hear each sound.
8. bound morpheme
A morpheme that occurs as part of a larger construction and do not stand-alone. (e.g., an "s" at the end of plural nouns)
9. closed sort
Word sorts that classify words into predetermined categories.
The teacher tells you what to sort
10. compound words
- Words made up of two or smaller words, which may or many not be hyphenated, depending on its parts of speech.
11. consonant
are not vowels. Consonant sounds are known for their noise and the way in which air is constricted as it is stopped and released or forced
12 consonant alternation
The process in which the pronunciation of consonants changes in the base or root of derivationally related words, while the spelling does not change. (e.g., sign, signal)
13. consonant digraph
Two letters that represent one sound. Consonant digraphs at the beginning of words are called onsets. (e.g., ch, sh, th and wh)
14. decodable text
The need to read aloud to vocalize the letter sounds.
Readers in this stage continue to benefit from repeated readings of predictable texts but also from the reading of text with many phonetically regular words. This supports the development of decoding strategies and the acquisition of sight words. (e.g., phonetically base text, "bl" text has a bunch of "bl" words)
15. decoding
To extract the underlying meaning from the activity of making clear or converting from code into plain text. Breaking down/chunking
16 derivational relations
The last stage of spelling development in which spellers learn about derivational relationships. (e.g., dealing with "Reduced and Altered Vowels", "Bases, roots and derivations")
17. diphthongs
A complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable. (e.g., oy & oi, ou, ow, oo, ow, ew)
18. free morpheme
A morpheme that can occur alone. (e.g., cats)
19. fluency
Powerful and effective language (eloquence), skillfulness in speaking or writing, the quality of being facile in speech and writing (articulate). Fluency is usually achieved at the "Within Word Pattern" stage of spelling development with the attainment of all phonics.
20. grapheme
A letter of an alphabet, all of the letters and letter combinations that represent a phoneme, a written symbol that is used to represent speech.
21 high frequency words
A word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language words from your unit that you want them to learn.
22. homonyms
Words that sound alike but are spelled different and have different meanings. (e.g., beat, beet)
23. informal spelling inventories
An informal assessment process that includes observation of student writing and informal tests or spelling inventories to understand student's orthographic knowledge. Can be given 2 or 3 times in the same school year (Beg, Jan., End)
24. lax vowel
Referred to also as the "short vowel" sound. (e.g., cǎt)
25. I-controlled words
- or "I-influence" - The letter "I" influences the vowel sounds they follow. Changes the pronunciation of the vowel they follow. (e.g., tall)
26. long vowel
Every vowel has two sounds "long" and "short": The long vowel sound "says its letter name". Vocal cords are tense, the linguistic term for the long-vowel sound. (e.g., micron)
27. morpheme
- A unit of meaning in the spelling of words such as the suffix "ed" which signals past tense. A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. (e.g., - ed)
28. multisyllable
A word of many syllables; a polysyllable. Usually occurs in the "Syllables and Affixes" stage of spelling development.
29. nonsense words
Words or signs having no intelligible meaning unintelligible or foolish talk (e.g., babble)
30. open sort
A type of picture of word sort in which the categories fro sorting are left open. Students can sort. Is one way to assess - no context c1ue(s). One may create own and put own features.
31. phoneme
The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. (e.g., the sound of |k|)
32. phonological awareness
An awareness of various speech sounds such as syllables, rhymes and individual phonemes. The ability to divide syllables into the smallest units of sound. Sounds. Usually occurs in the "Emergent ¬Phonemic Awareness" stage of spelling development. (e.g., jingles, rhymes, chanting)
33. semantic webs
Are graphic aids that may be used to (a) fine tune students understanding of words/concepts in the same semantic "family" and (b) expand students' vocabulary by presenting new terms.
34. spelling words
Authentic words taken from spelling books and content books to understand students' orthographic knowledge
35. stress
or emphasis. (a) The relative force with which a sound or syllable is spoken. (b) the emphasis placed on the sound or syllable spoken forcefully in a word or phrases (c) the accent or mark representing such emphasis or force
36. suffix
An affix attached at the beginning of a base word or word root
37. syllables
Units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants. Are units of sound and can often be detected by the movements of the mouth. Usually occurs in the "Syllables and Affixes" stage of spelling development. Assist in chunking recognizable words.
38. phonics
The systematic relationship between letters and sounds.
39. prefix
An affix attached at the beginning of a base word or word root.
58. vowel teams
Vowel digraphs. Two vowels that belong together. (e.g., ea)
r-controlled words
or r-influence - the letter "r" influence the vowel sounds they follow, it changes the pronunciation of the vowel they follow. (e.g., ar, er, ur - air, ear)
41. rime
A unit composed of the vowel and any following consonants within a syllable.
42. rhyming
A word that corresponds with another in terminal sound
43. root
or base word. Refers to Greek roots or word parts of Greek origin often combined with other roots to form words
44. schwa
A vowel sound in English that often occurs in an unstressed syllable.
A vowel made in the middle of the mouth. Usually occurs in the "Syllables and Affixes and Derivational Relations" stages of spelling development. (e.g., |uh|)
45. segmentation
The division of words into segments (any of the parts into which something can be divided.) Breaking into discreet phonemes. Stretching words out
46. semantics -
The study or science of meaning in language: the study of meanings. Words have meanings. Usually occurs in the "Syllables and Affixes and Derivational Relations" stages of spelling development.
short vowel
Referred to also as "lax vowel". The short vowel sound is where the vocal cords are more relaxed when being produced.
48. sight words
Words that usually do not follow phonic rules. Words recognized and pronounced immediately "at first sight". Does not necessarily mean high frequency words. It is any known word, regardless of its frequency or phonetic regularity. Helps remembering words out of context.
49. spelling
Referred to also "orthography" - the correct sequences of letters in the writing system.
50. syllable juncture
The act of joining or the condition of being joined, a place where two things are joined. (e.g., bake, baker)
51. synonym
Words that are closest to the meaning of the opposite words.
Words are the same.
52. syntax
or grammar. The study of the rules whereby words or other (grammar) elements of sentence structure combined to form grammatical sentences.
53. trigraphs
Three letters spelling one consonant, vowel or diphthong. Any combination of three letters of an alphabet. Three letter blends. (e.g., sch, igh)
54. vocabulary notebooks
Are an integral part of a student's word learning at the "derivational relations" phase. Students may include roots, affixes, suffixes, content vocabulary, digraphs and diphthongs. (e.g., record word sorts, add words to the sorts)
55. vowel
A speech sound produced by the easy passage of air through a relatively open vocal track. Vowels form the most central sound of a syllable
56. vowel alternation
The process in which the pronunciation of vowels changes in the base or root of derivationally related words while the spelling does not change.
57. vowel marker
A silent letter used to indicate the sound of the vowel. In English, silent letters are used to form patterns associated with specific vowel. They are usually vowels themselves but can also be consonants. (e.g., crime, criminal)
58. vowel teams
Vowel digraphs. Two vowels that belong together. (e.g., ea)
59. word families
Phonograms or words that share the same rime. In the derivational relations stage word families refer to words that share the same root or origin
60. word study
notebooks
Notebooks in which students write their word sorts into columns and add other words that follow similar spelling patterns throughout their course of study. WSN are organized around the orthographic features students are studying. Similar to vocabulary notebook.
COMPREHENSION
the absence of confusion
1. after reading activities
Activities used to check for understanding after reading. Reflects what they are reading.
2. anticipating
inferring and/or making a prediction. Assist with the anticipation of what will happen next.
3. anticipation guides
Statements to consider getting students thinking at a higher level.
4. assisted reading
Referred to also buddy, dyad, peer or paired reading.
Two students read the same text aloud in unison for mutual support.
5. basal
Guides for teachers including literature, supplementary materials, instructions and/or teacher packets, which include books those students, will be able to read
6. benchmark books
Assessment books. Used to assess all students' reading decoding accuracy, comprehension through oral retelling, and fluency in terms of words-correct-per minute rates, phrasing and intonation. A bb is a teacher ¬selected, leveled text that represents the "average" level of text difficulty expected that a child should read at that point in the year.
7. big books
- The most valuable big book is those that are student made that summarize the content found in a unit of study (math). Constructing big books requires students to read, comprehend, and then "tell back" what they have learned. Big books can be motivating because they provide students with an opportunity to share with others what they have learned.
8. cause/effect
Patterns of organization writers use. Helps students construct their own comprehension of the topic under study. (e.g., steps-in-a-process, compare/contrast, same/different, chain of events, persuasion by point/counterpoint, turning point map)
10. character report card
A literature response activity called "CRC" might be selected to talk about the goal pages already read by the literature response group (LRG) members. Offers students an opportunity to grade the behavior of characters in a group
11. classifying
Another patterns of organization writers use. (e.g., list, sorting)
12. cloze
Passages (from the word closure) are short passages (250 words) from expository books commonly used in the teacher's classroom that have certain words deleted (usually every fifth word) and replaced with a blank. Students are asked to read the cloze passages and fill in the missing words based on what they feel makes sense using context clues. If students are reading effectively and with adequate comprehension, usually they are able to guess the missing words or at least a word of the same part of speech. Helps the teacher know whether the student is able to use context clues when reading expository materials in the selected field of study and whether he has a strong enough vocabulary to cope with the textbook being used.
13. collaborative (reasoning discussion) teaming
An approach to literature discussion intended to stimulate critical reading and thinking and to be personally engaging. (e.g., teacher, teacher and teacher, special aide, reading teacher, any other support person)
17. DRTA
directed reading thinking activity - Was introduced as a means of developing reading comprehension and is an effective means of facilitating students' comprehension.
1. Steps the DR-TA: 1) Identifying purposes for reading - stages of thinking and the teacher's role, 2) Adjusting rate to purposes and material - rate and flow of information and rate adjustment, 3) Observing the reading, 4) Developing comprehension and 5) Developing fundamental skills.
18. during reading activities
- Activities used to check for understanding during reading. (e.g., prediction, word study notebook, popcorn, KWL
19. ESL accommodations
Accommodations made for ESL students. (e.g., picture books, vocabulary, picture connections, environmental)
20. from the text questions
- Questions at the end of the chapter utilized to check students' understanding.
21. from the author questions
The bridge to the author and you questions
22. the author and you questions
The answers to the questions are not directly in the text; but the author has given you information in the text that the student has to put together with what they already know and then fit all of this together to come up with an answer. What is it that the author wants to tell you? This process requires higher-level thinking.
24. guided reading
Students begin to take responsibility for controlling the reading of leveled text. Students accelerate their development of reading strategies and fluency. Scaffolding reading.
25. independent reading
The student has developed control over the entire reading process and cueing systems. Conference with student before letting them participate in independent reading. (e.g., self-sustained, silent reading, DEAR)
27. instructional interventions
- The method for developing instruction with the students' learning needs in mind to facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude, to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction. (e.g., mini lessons, simple assessments)
29. LEA
Language Experience Approach - An approach to the teaching of reading in which students read about their own experiences recorded in their own language. Experience stories are dictated by the student to a teacher who writes them down. Dictated accounts are reread in unison, in echo fashion and independently. Known words are lifted out of context and grouped by various phonic elements. Student's common experience. The student supply print and teacher write print
32. literature reading minilessons
Minilessons are typically whole-class or small group lessons used to: 1) teach reading strategies and skills, 2) promote student responses to what they have read, or 3) teach a necessary procedure. Teacher may know from looking at students' papers or when grading papers. (e.g., literary minilessons - cause/effect, difference in fiction/nonfiction, sarcasm (lowest form of humor), story map, summary)
33. metacognitive connections
The connection/strategies that students select to use in comprehending text and how well they regulate the status of their own comprehension as they read. It helps students ask, "What's wrong with this picture?"
34. miscue analysis
An analysis that assesses accuracy and fluency and how well students use content. An analysis to determine the extent to which the student uses cueing strategies when encountering new words and a miscue occurs
39. observing student interactions with the text
The observation made by teachers regarding their students' frequency and types of books they choose to read, how frequently they read and what types of books they select. Teachers' purpose should be to provide students with self-monitoring strategies. (re-read, clues, italized chart)
44. prior experiences - schema
A schema can be thought of as a kind of file cabinet of information in our brains containing related: 1) concepts, 2) events, 3) emotions and 4) roles drawn from our life experiences. Each schema is connected to other related schemas, forming our own unique and interconnected network of knowledge and experiences. The size and content of each schema is influenced by past opportunities to learn or prior experiences
45. project-based learning
Project-based learning (PBL) is a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and practices. PBL helps make learning relevant and useful to students by establishing connections to life outside the classroom, addressing real world concerns, and developing real world skills. (e.g., after-reading activity - commercial readers theater)