Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/156

Click to flip

156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
School Culture
bullying, teasing, cliques, safety issues, groups, gender relationships, policies, procedures, norms for dress, affect students
accommodation
Dealing with a new exp. by modifiying an old scheme or forming a new scheme.
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act- law that prohibits discrimination based on disabilities by state and local governments. Not dependent on receipt of federal funds
Adaptation
adjustment to the environment
ADD
Attention Deficit Disorder - difficulty focusing, following directions, organizing.
ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - same difficulties as ADD but also have difficulty with impulsiveness, sitting still and taking turns. diagnosis made by medical professional
Age-Appropriate Knowledge and Behavior
student progress on developmental continuum in physical, social, emotional and cognitive development most be compared to average of peers
Alternative Assessments
anecdotal records of student behavior, portfolios, checklists of progress, conferences. view of process and product, as opposed to a test score
Anchored Instruction
concrete application of concept
Appropriate Education
Free and appropriate public education
Areas of Exceptionality in Learning
Visual and perceptual difficulties Special physical or sensory challenges Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Functional mental retardation Learning disabilities
assimilation
students add new information to their view of the world fitting new information into existing schemes
Auditory (Aural) Learner
process information through listening
Ausubel, David
"Advance Organizer" - help link prior knowledge to current lesson. Examples: semantic webs, KWL charts, concept maps
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism, Asperger Syndrome and other PDDs (Pervasive developmental delays. Difficulty socializing and communicating
Banura, Albert
"Modeling" - observational learning - Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation
Behaviorism
a theory of animal and human learning that focuses on observable behaviors and ignores psychological activities.
blooms taxonomy
The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom's Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive.
Brown vs. Board of Education
educational facilities are not allowed to segregate according to race
Bruner
Discovery Learning and Constructivism - learning is active process, construct new ideas based on past knowledge
Canter
"Assertive Discipline"; clear expectations, rules and follow through; choice to obey or face consequences
Causal Relationship
explains why behaviors occurs
cause-and-effect maps
graph cause and effect
Cognition
The capacity for knowing, organizing perceptions, and problem solving.
Cognitive Development Stages
Identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them.
Cognitive Patterns
teachers must understand student's individualized learning methods
concept
involves the process of grouping and/or classifying information in order to determine what kinds of things or objects match or go together.
Concrete Operational Thinkers
children 7-11 think in logical, not abstract, terms. Hands-on experiences needed
Considerations in teaching:
Multicultural backgrounds Age-appropriate knowledge and behavior, The student culture at the school Family backgrounds Linguistic patterns and differences Cognitive patterns and differences, Social and emotional issues"
Constructivism
people construct their own understanding through reflection on experiences
Constructivism Cognition
a constructive developmental process involving qualitative change in children's ability to move forward as they internalize learning tasks and skills.
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing a response every time it occurs
Correlational Relationship
the extent to which two variables are related to each other, such that when one variable increases, the other either increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable manner
Debra P vs. Turlington
can use competency tests to award high school diplomas
Demonstrations
explicitly showing students what something is or how to do it.
Developmental crisis
explicitly showing students what something is or how to do it.
Developmental Delays
Identified by medical professional before age 22. Difficulties with self-care, expressive or receptive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living and economic self-sufficiency
Dewey
Learning Through Experience; School is a social instituion and process of living, focus on creating problem solvers, students should direct their own education.
Diana vs. State Board of Education
assessments must be administered in native language
Differentiated Instruction
responding to the wide range of abilities. Tiered Instruction, Curriculum Compacting, Curriculum Chunking, Flexible Grouping
Direct Instruction
planned lessons, small attainable increments, defined goals.
Discovery Learning
methods that enable discovery of information by themselves or in groups
Due Process
procedures or safeguards that give students with disabilities extensive rights. Notice of meetings, examining relevant records, impartial hearings and review procedure
Efficacy
The capacity for producing a desired result, including planning intentional actions, guiding and directing one's own behaviors toward a goal, and reflecting on one's actions to assess their quality, impact, and purpose.
elements of observational learning Four
Attention, Retention, Production, Motivation
ELL or ESL or PLNE
English language learner, English as a second language and primary language not English. Build on student's culture, support proficiency in native language, give time, work in small groups
Enactive learning
learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (self-regulation of behavior goal directed behavior
Environmental Factors
focus on immediate environment during learning
Equilibration
a process that regulates tension between assimilation (information) and accommodation (learning). individuals learn through experiences different from previous experiences. mental structure is modified in small steps.
Erik Erikson's 8 Stages
Trust vs. mistrust, Autonomy vs. shame/doubt,Initiative vs. guilt, Identity vs. role confusion, Intimacy vs. isolation, Generativity vs. stagnation, Ego integrity vs. despair"
Erikson
8 Stages of Human Development
Essential Nine Instructional Strategies
1- Identifying Similarities and Differences 2- Summarizing and Note-Taking 3- Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 4- Assigning Homework and Practice 5-Fostering Nonlinguistic Representations 6 - Encouraging Cooperative Learning 7-Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 8-Generating and Testing Hypotheses
Extinction
eventual disappearance of a conditioned response as a result stimulus being repeatedly
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation from outside a person, Stickers, behavior charts, incentives are examples
FERPA (Buckley Amendment)
family educational rights and privacy acts
Formal Operational Thought
the final stage of cognitive development, 11-15 characterized by reasoning, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis testing.
four stages of development for cognitive ability?
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete, and Formal Operational
Functional Mental Retardation (MR)
diagnosis by medical professional , difficulties with age-specific activities, communication, daily living activities, getting along with others
Gardner
Multiple Intelligences - Verbal/linguistic, Logical/mathematical/ Visual/spatial, Bodily/kinesthetic. Musical, Interpersonal. Intrapersonal, Naturalist
Gilligan
Stages of the Ethic of Care - challenged male centered theorists
Ginott
supportive and preventive discipline; describe issue or event instead of saying the child did something wrong
Glassner
"Choice Theory or Control Theory"; Focus on behavior, not students during conflict. Student involvement. Create space to learn.
Guadalupe Organization, Inc vs. Temple Elementary School
students cannont be identified as MR unless they were properly assessed by considering the student's primary language and have an IQ two standard deviations below from the mean
Hidalgo
Three Levels of Culture - Concrete (objects), Behavioral (communication and social roles), Symbolic (values and beliefs)
Hobson vs. hanson
schools must provide equal educational opportunities despite a families SES
Honig vs. Doe
a special education student must have a manisfestation hearling to review placement after 10 days of suspension
Hunter, Madeline
"Direct Instruction" - Objectives, Standards, Advance Organizer, Teaching, Practice, Closure, Extended Practice "anticipatory set" connects prior knowledge to new content
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Act - federal statue of grant programs. Specifies disabilities and conditions for entitlement to special education
IEP
Individualized Education Plan - written plan based on multidisciplinary teams' evaluation (MDT) reviewed and updated yearly, required under Public Law 94-142 (IDEA)
Inclusion
Mainstreaming
Inoperant conditioning
the eventual disappearance of a response that is no longer being reinforced"
Intermittent Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response going unreinforced
Interpersonal
self
Intrapersonal
others
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation from within, reflecting on goals, achievements or helping students see progress are examples
Intuative thinking
The intellectual technique of arriving at plausable byt tentative formulations without going through analytical steps. Bruner argues its a much neglected but essential feature of productive thinking.
Jones
developer of positive classroom management; nonverbal communication; incentives 50% of instruction time lost to 80% talking and 20% goofing off. Use teacher body language, incentive systems and efficient individual help
Kinesthetic Leaner
process information through moving and oing
Kohlberg
Theory of Moral Development: Preconvential - obedience inspired by punishment, Conventional - approval of others and meeting obligations, Post-conventional - social mutuality and interest in welfare of others, Conventional - social mutuality and interest in welfare of others
Kounin
"with-it-ness"; constant monitoring and awareness of student behavior, awareness of classroom, pacing and smooth transitions
Larry P vs. Riles
the % of special education students can not exceed the % represented in the school population"
Lau vs. Nichols
provide support to ELL students
LD
Learning Disabilities - determined by multidisciplinary team or a physician. Not learning to potential - usually in reading , math or written.
Learned Helplessness
a general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
Learner Factors
informs lesson planning, meet needs through differentiation
Learning Styles
characteristic approaches to learning and studying
Linguistic Patterns
Non-English speakers or non-Standard American English (SAE) students benefit from periods of silence and listening more.
LRE
Least Restrictive Environment - setting that to the maximum extent appropriate students with disabilities are educated with non disabled peers
Marshall vs. Georgia
contrast to Larry P students can be placed in special education as long as approriate and proper steps for placement are followed
Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs - Physiological, Safety, Love and Belongingness, Esteem, Self-actualization
mental set
established via a force of habit and based primarily on the way individuals are accustomed to solving problems.
Metacognition
ability to think about own thinking. self awareness and self regulation. example: describing strategies used to solve problem
Mills vs. Board of Education of District of Columbia
reiterates PARCS free and appropriate education regardless of mental physicla or emotional disability or impairment
model of moral reasoning
Growing children advance through definate stages of moral development. They progress consecutively from stage one without skipping or going back. The stages are of thought processing.
Moll
Funds of Knowledge; multicultural families can become social and intellectual resources for a school
Montessori
Follow the Child; Learning process: stage 1 - Introduce, 2 - Process through work or experimentation, 3 - knowing, pass test, teach to others
Multicultural
help students define and understand their own cultures. eliminate mutual misconceptions, form lesson planning
Naturalistic with Existential
the ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data
Negative Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus.
Nondiscriminartory
think about culutral considerations
Objectives
"What are students supposed to know or be able to do at the conclusion of the lesson?"
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which new responses are strengthened by the presentation of reinforcements.
Operations
– actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions
PARC vs. Commonwealth of PA
courts stated denying chidren with handicaps is a denial of equal protection
Parents in Action in Spcial Education vs. Hannon
pro special education endorsed the use of standardized tests as long as they are not culturally biased and are used with other measures
Pavlov
"Classical Conditioning": conditioned responses, responsible for experimental basis of behaviorist learning theory
Pesce vs. Sterling Morton HIgh School
duty to report child abuse
Physical Issues
communicate to appropriate parties to help optimal learning.
Piaget
4 stages of cognitive development
Positive Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
Preoperational Thought
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the stage in which representational skills are acquired.
Punishment
a consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
Punishment vs. Discipline
teacher-centered vs. student-centered
Readiness to Learn
basic needs are met and student is cognitively ready to learn
Reflective thought
active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends
Reinforcement
the act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response
Rowley vs. Board of Education
do not have to provide the best education but adequet
Scaffolding
Assistance given that is weened away as the learner progresses
Schema
concepts form from past experiences. Mind loves organization and associates information with past events
Schemes
mental systems of categories and experiences
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
civil rights law prohibits discrimination against disabilities by federally assisted programs. Covers individuals from birth to death
Self-efficacy
the belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
Sensorimotor Intelligence
In Piaget's theory of development, the first stage of cognitive growth, during which schemes are built on sensory and motor experiences.
Shaping
a process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations of a desired terminal behavior
Skinner
Operant Conditioning; "Grandfather of behaviorism"; Learning is a function of change in observable behavior
Social and Emotional Issues
Maslow - fundamental needs must be met. Socioeconomic Status (SES) must be accounted for, but high expectations regardless of SES
Social Cognition
Concepts related to understanding interpersonal behavior and the point of view of others.
Social Learning Theory
Learn by watching others.
SQ3R
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review
Stages of moral reasoning
1. Preconventional Moral Reasoning judgment is based own person needs and others rules 2. Conventional Moral Reasoning judgment is based on others, 3. Postconventional Moral Reasoning social contract and universal ethics approval
Story Maps
map elements of story
Student learning is influenced by:
Individual experiences, Prior learning Individual talents, Language, Culture, Family, Community values
Tactile Learner
process information through touching - need hands-on experiences
Tarasoff vs. The Regents of the University of CA
duty to warn parents or individual if counselor feels as though they are in danger
Testing Accommodations
longer times, untimed tests, having a scribe, large fonts, breaks, sing-language interpretation.
Three approaches to organize new info
Assimilation, Accommadation, & Equilibration
Transfer
Influence of previously learned material on new material"
Vicarious
learning is learning by observing others
Visual Learner
process information through seeing.
Vygotsky
Zone of Proximal Development - social development theory of learning - Social interaction influences cognitive development
Vygotsky saw speech as...
a connection to thinking.
What are Howard Gardner's eight types of intelligence in his theory of multiple intelligences?
They are Spatial, Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Musical
What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational.
What are schemes? (Piaget)
An individual's generalized way of responding to the world; method of organization.
What are some benefits of standardized test?
change between groups and years, Give a general sense of students strengths and weaknesses
What are some issues about current assessment?
Schools tied to the test results NCLB, Nondominant populations
What are some weaknesses of standardized tests?
One dimensional learning and teaching experience
What are the characteristics of the Concrete Operational stage?
1. ages 7-11 2. perf. mental oper. w/concrete obj. not verbal statements 3. conservation 4. verbal understanding
What are the levels of moral reasoning?
Preconventional Morality (ages 4-10) Conventional Morality (ages 10-13) Postconventional Morality"
What is a limit of ZPD?
the level of skill reached by the child working independently.
What Is Scaffolding in Teaching?
parameters, rules or suggestions a teacher gives a student in a learning situation; help with only the skills that are new or beyond ability
What is the upper limit of ZPD?
The level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.
When behaviors are followed by desirable consequences
they tend to increase in frequency
When behaviors do not produce results
they typically decrease and may even disappear altogether"
Zero Reject Principle
assures services to all children with disabilities areas should obtain accurate child accounts and these should be sent to Washington
Zone of Proximal Development
students learn best in social context where taught information student could not learn on own. APK2. less complex taks first 3. work with an expert to plan a task 4. social interactions