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223 Cards in this Set

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Parable
A story that is realistic and has a moral. The story is didactic because it teaches a lesson. Unlike the fable, a parable can be - but is not necessarily - true.
Fable
A fable is a non-realistic story with a moral. The fable also has animals as main characters. Aesop, a Greek slave, is often associated with the fable.
Fairy Tales
Despite the name, fairy tales do not necessarily include fairies; rather, their key characteristic is the element of magic. Fairy tales usually follow a certain pattern and often present an "ideal" to the listener or the reader.
Folktales
Told in the language of the people. Stories do not necessarily have a moral. Folktales often have entertainment as their main purpose.
Noodleheads
A humorous folktale. Are those tales that have a character or characters whom the listener can outsmart. The listener often views these stories as particularly funny because they make the listener feel superior.
Myth
Stories designed to explain things that the teller does not understand. Greeks and Romans, for example, used this story type and its associated heroes and heroines to explain thunder, fire, and the "movements" of the sun.
Legend
Stories - usually exaggerated - about real people, places, and things.
Romanticism
Flourished around the 18th and 19th centuries beginning in Germany and England and spreading quickly through Europe. Romanticism "emphasized imagination, fancy, and freedom, emotion, wildness, beauty of the natural world, the rights of the individual, the nobility of the common man, and the attractiveness of pastoral life."
Realism
Realism was a nineteenth century reaction to romanticism. The form of literature that gained particular popularity during the realist movement was the novel. Realism embraced the true-to-life subject matter. Rejecting the classical themes common in literature such as mythology and ballads, realists preferred to focus on everyday life.
Symbolism
An early modernist literary movement initiated in France during the 19th century that reacted against the prevailing standards of realism. Writers in the movement aimed to evoke, indirectly and symbolically, an order of being beyond the material world of the five senses. The principal aim of the symbolists was to express in words the highly complex feelings that grew out of everyday contact with the world.
Modernism
Associated with the first decades of the twentieth century. The term modernist can describe the content and the form of a work, or either aspect alone. Typical of modernism is experimentation and the realization that knowledge is not absolute. Common themes in modern traditions are the loss of a sense of tradition and the dominance of technology.
Surrealism
Works from this period feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, and non-sequitor. Andre Breton is considered the leader of this movement, which began in Paris in the early 1920s, and soon spread around the world. Aimed to free people from what they saw as false rationality and restrictive customs and structures. Thought to use Freud's free association work, dream analysis, and the unconscious to free imagination.
Modern Fiction
An easy way of classifying modern fiction is simply to decide whether a book is realistic or fanciful. There are times, however, when a more discrete classification method is in order. In this case, modern fiction may be classified into four categories: novels, romance, confession, or Menippean satire.
Novels
Recount realistic stories that really could happen or could have happened. A novel's setting and characters are thus realistic. This setting can be any city, any country, even another planet, as long as the author can convince the reader that the setting is real. Likewise, anyone can serve as a main character as long as the author can make that character believable to the reader.
Romance
A romance, on the other hand, presents an idealized view of life in which the characters, setting, and action that are better than what one would experience in real life.
Confession
In a confession, one character reveals thoughts and ideas. This particular character is a round character, whom the reader knows in detail.
Menippean Satire
Allows the reader to see the world through the eyes of another. In Roals Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the reader sees the world through Charlie's eyes. The desire for candy becomes almost overpowering for the reader - just as it does for Charlie.
Tone
Reveal's the author's attitude toward the writing, the reader, the subject, and / or the people, places, and events in a work. The author's feelings might be serious or ironic, sad or happy, private of public, angry or affectionate, bitter or nostalgic, or any of the other attitudes and feelings that human beings experience.
Tone: Condescension
Occurs when the writer talks down to the reader. The writer addresses the audience as if they are beneath him or her in age, in knowledge, or in class.
Tone: Didacticism
embodies a teaching tone. The writer addresses the reader as if they must learn something. Sometimes this didactic tone can reach the point of condescension.
Tone: Irony
is the incongruity between what one expects and what actually happens. A pervasive quality in fiction, irony may appear in three main forms: language, incidents, and point of view.
Irony: Verbal Irony
A contrast between what is said and what is meant.
Irony: Situational Irony
There is a discrepancy between what happens and what the reader expects to happen.
Irony: Dramatic Irony
There is a contrast between what a character believes or says and what the reader understands to be true.
Humor
Writing conveys fun. It can be precise and exacting.
Parody
A humorous or ridiculing imitation of something else.
Sentimentality
The excessive use of feeling or emotion - is another tone an author might employ.
Simile
a description that uses like, than, or as to draw a comparison between two dissimilar things. Brings imagery to the mind of the reader, requires the reader to think, and adds information to the description.
Metaphor
A figure of speech containing an implied comparison in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primary used for one purpose is applied to another which is not literally applicable.
Analogy
a comparison of one thing to another thing.
Personification
the attributions of human characteristics to inanimate objects.
Cliches
phrases that have become meaningless because of their frequent use.
Allusion
A reference to a historical, literary, or otherwise generally familiar character or event that helps make an idea understandable.
Diction
An author's choice of words.
Voice
A literary term that describes a writer's individual writing study and combines an authors use of dialogue, diction, alliteration, and other devices within the body of the text.
Omnicient
A narrator who knows all abot the characters and the actions and shares this information with the audience.
Limited omnicient point of view
a narrator who does not share all the information about all the characters or all the events with the readers.
First person singular
told through the eyes of one central character. The reader should realize that the account may be biased by the person telling the story. The writer will have the narrator speak of him or herself using first person pronouns: I, me, my.
Second person
employs the word you. Sometimes this point of view poses a problem for the reader. Who is you? The reader? experiences problems in understanding the piece.
Third person
the narrator does not participate in the action. The narrator can, however, reveal the thoughts and actions of the characters. The writer usually employs either the third person singular pronouns - he, she, it - or the third person plural - they and them.
Denotation
A words precise meaning.
Connotation
the impression or feeling a word gives beyond its exact meaning. Sometimes the reader must have some prior knowledge to understand the term.
Alliteration
the repetition of initial sounds in two or more words in a sentence or phrase.
Consonance
like alliteration, it involves sounds of words. consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the end of stressed syllables.
Assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds.
Onomatopoeia
a stylistic device in which the sound of the word imitates the sound it represents. example: pow, bop, splat.
Rhythm
(the flow or cadence), of the words can help create a mood, or feeling, in the reader.
Imagery
descriptive language designed to create a mental image for the reader of the smells, feelings, sounds, or sights of a person, place, thing, or event.
Hyperbole
An exaggeration; it describes something -or someone- as larger or more important than is the case.
Understatement
underplays something and presents it to be less significant than is actually true.
Wordplay
a stylistic device that many writers employ. It is essentially as it sounds: the playful and creative use of words for a witty effect. A pun, for example, is the use of wordplay.
Symbolism
the use of one person, place, or thing to represent another.
Denouement
the ending of book. there are two types: open and closed. Open leaves some of the reader's questions unanswered and closed answers all the readers questions.
Progressive Plot
requires one to read the entire book or story to find the answers to the questions of the ply.
Episodic plot
features individual chapters or episodes that are related to each other but each of which is a story unto itself.
Setting
Time and place which a story or book occurs.
Structure
The plot and setting together make up the structure of the story.
Backdrop Setting
A setting that is not integral to the plot.
Integral Setting
A setting that is essential to the plot. It actually occurs where the author says it does.
Character
The characters - or personalities - who make many books live on for many years.
Character: Round
fully described or revealed
Character: Flat
Not fully developed, described, or revealed.
Character: Dynamic
Developing or changing
Character: Static
Unchanging
Theme
The main idea or central meaning of the book.
Theme: Survival of the Unfittest
Characters that face many life threatening-situations and survive when in reality they probably shouldn't have. The fact that they manage to endure is this theme.
Theme: Picaresque
The journey brings excitement- and danger - into each character's life. Provides excitement for the reader.
Theme: Reversal of Fortune
Usually played out as a change or even a complete turnabout in the circumstances of a character or character(s).
Theme: Authenticity
A book that is conceivable or convincing. Requires that the components (setting, character...etc) must be accurate for the time and place.
Nonfiction Prose
Expository writing. Meant to inform the reader. Style derives from the same elements as fiction. An argumentative essay may have a more formal style than a narrative essay.
Poetry
Writing that is not prose.
Stanza
A group of lines to which there is often a metrical order and a repeated rhyme.
Rhyme
Can refer to corresponding sounds, rhyme schemes, and / or to the metrical order.
End Rhyme
Rhyming that occurs at the end of a line.
Internal Rhyme
One rhyming word within the line.
Open Form Prose
"Free Verse" No rhyme or metrical order.
Closed Form
Poet adheres to the form, number of lines, rhyme scheme, meter, and / or shape.
Closed Form: Sonnet
Closed - or ficed form poem of 14 lines.
Sonnet: Petrarchan
A poem with an octave of eight lines and the sestet of six lines. The rhyme scheme is abbaabba-cdecde.
Sonnet: Shakesperean
Organizes the lines into three groups of four lines (quatrains) and two rhyming couplets. The rhyme scheme is always abab cdcd efef gg. There is usually a turn or shift.
Couplet
A two-line stanza that usually has an end rhyme.
Heroic Couplet
A couplet that is end-stopped; it is written in iambic pentameter.
Epic
A story poem that is vast in lenfht and written with dignified language which celebrates the achievements of a hero.
Ballad
Stories in song. Some date from as early as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, having been passed down by word of mouth until the actual recording on paper. Usually simple and theme and written anonymously. The stories often center on love and hate, lust and murder, knights, and the supernatural. A ballad stanza often has four lines with a rhyme scheme of ab cb. Lines 1 and 3 have 8 syllables; lines two and 4 have 6 syllables.
Literary Ballads
Are the composition of late poets rather than the result of the oral tradition. Later poets use ballads to tell stories.
Lyric
The lyric moces the listener/reader from the story of the ballad to emotion. The word lyric comes form the Greek word lyre; often the musical instrument accompanied the reading of this form of the poem.
Lyric: Elegy
An elegy is a lament for someone or for something, such as love or an idea.
Lyric: Ode
Is usually longer than an elegy and explores topics other than merely death.
Vilanelle
A courtly love poem from medieval times. It has five, three-line stanzas (tercets_ with a whyme scheme of aba, and then a four line stanza (quatrain) with the rhyme scheme abaa. There is also a repitition of the poem's first line as the last line of the second and the fourth tercets. The thrid line appears as the last line of the third and fifthr tercet. The two lines appear again as rhyming lines at the end of the poem.
Sestine
The structure consists of six stanzas of six lines.
Epigram
A short poem with a clever twist at the end.
Limericks
Have five lines and the rhyme scheme of aabba.
Rhyme: Slant
Slant rhyme - also known as half rhyme, off rhyme, near rhyme, or approximate rhyme - is a device that some poets use to surprise the reader. The audience is expecting a perfect rhyme, but it does not come. Some poets use slant rhyme to give the reader a let-down or express disappointment.
Rhyme: Masculine or Feminine
Masculine rhyme typically uses one-syllable words to give a feeling of strength or impact. Some poets stress the final syllable of polysyllable words to add strength and create a masculine rhyme. Feminine rhyme may use a rhyme of two or more syllables. The stress does not fall upon the final syllable as it does in a masculine rhyme form. Effect is to give the reader a feeling of softness and lightness.
Unrhymed Verse (Free Verse)
Verse that varies in metrical pattern. Is without rhyme or rhythm.
Blank Verse
Also unrhymed, but it has a strict rhythm. Must be written in iambic pentameter.
Iambic Pentameter
is a poetry meter in which each line contains five measures of one unstressed and one stressed syllable.
Foot
the basic measuring unit in a line of poetry, and each of these unstressed-stressed syllable pairs is called an iambic foot.
OTHER METERS
monometer (one), dimeter (two), trimeter (three), tetrameter (four), heptameter (six), and octameter (eight).
Anapest
A foot consisting of three syllables in which the first two are short or unstressed and the final one is long or stressed. For example "in the FIRE"
Trochee
A foot that has two syllables in which the first is long or stressed and the second is short or unstressed. For example, "DOUble, DOUble, TOIL and TROUble."
Dactyl
A foot of three syllables in which the first is long or stressed, and the next two are unstressed or short. For example, "TAKE her up TENderly."
Rhyme in Open-Form Poems
Open-form poems seem to have spilled on the page in any order, the poet hs no rules of rhyme pattern or meter. There may be rhyme, but if there is, the rhyme may seem to have "slipped in" with no formal pattern.
Classical Period (1200 BCE - 455 CE) Hemeric or Heroic Period
Greek legends are passed along orally, including Homer's The Illiad and The Odyssey. This is a chaotic period of warrior princes, wandering sea traders, and fierce pirates.
Classical Greek Period (800 -200 BCE
Greek writers, playwrights, and philosophers such as Gorgias, Aesop, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripedes, and Sophocles all make their mark during this period. The fifth century in paricular is known as the Golden Age of Greece. This is the sophisticated age of the polis, or individual city-state, and early democracy.
Classical Roman Period (200 BCE - 455 BCE)
Greece's culture gives way to Roman power when Rome conquesrs greece in 146 ce. The Roman Republic was traditionally founded in 509 BCE, but it is limited in size until later. Playwrights of this time include Plautus and Terence. After nearly 500 years as a Republic, Rome slides into dictatorship under Caesar . Roman writers including Ovid, Horace, and VIrgil.
Patristic Period (70 CE - 455 CE)
Early Christian writings appear such as those by Saint Sugustine, Tertullian, Saint Cyprian, Saint Ambrose, and Saint Jerome. This is the period in which Saint Jerome first compiles the Bible, when Christiant spready accross Europe,a nd the Roman Empire suffers its dying convulsions.
Medieval Period (455 Ce -1485 CE): Old English (Anglo Saxon) Period.
The so called Fark ages occur when Rome falls and barbarian tribes move into Europe. Early Old English Epic poems such as Beowulf, The Wanderer, and The Deafarer originate sometime late in this period.
Coligian Renaissance
Emerges in Europe; texts include early medieval grammars, encyclopedias, and the like.
Middle English Period (1066 - 1450)
In 1066, Norman French armies invade and conquer England under William I. This marks the end of the Anglo-Saxon hierarchy and the emergence of the Twelfth Century Renaissance. French chivalrie romance and French fables spread in popularity.
Late Medieval Period (1200 - 1485)
This often tumultuous period is marked by the Middle English writings of Geoffrey Chaucer, the "Gawain" or "Pearl" poet, the Wakefield Master, and William Langland. Other writers include Boccaccio, Petrarch, Dante and Christine de Pisan.
The Renaissance and Reformation (1485 - 1660)
Takes place in the late fifteenth, sixteenth, and early seventeenth centuries in Britain.
Early Tudor Period (1485 - 1558)
The War od the Roses ends in England with Henry Tudor claiming the throne. Martin Luther's splite with the Roman catholic Church marks the emergence of Pretestantism, followed by Henry VIII's Anglican schism, which creates the first Protestant church in England. Edmund Spenser is a poet of this period.
Elizabethan Period (1558 - 1603)
Queen Elizabeth I saves England from both the Spanish invasion and internal squabbles at home. Her reign is marked by the early workes of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Thomas Kyd, and Sir Philip Sidney.
Jacobean Period (1603 - 1625)
Shakespeare writes his later works, and Aemilia Lanyer, Ben Jonson, and John Donne make their mark.
Caroline Age (1635 - 1649)
John Milton, George Herbert, Robert Herrick, and the "Sons of Ben" among others, write during the reign of Charles I and his Cavaliers.
Commonwealth Period or Puritan Interregnum (1649 - 1660_
Under Oliver Cromwell's Puritan dictatorship, John Milton continues to write; other writers of the period include Andrew Marvell and Sir Thomas Browne.
Later Periods of Literature
Spans of time in which literature shared intellectual, linguistic, and artistic influences.
The Enlightenment (Neoclassical) Period (1660-1790)
Neoclassical refers to the increased influence of classical literature upon these centuries. Called the Enlightenment due to the increased reverence for logic and disdain for superstition. The period is marked by the rise of deism, intellictual backlash against earlier Puritanism, and America's revolution against England.
Restoration Period (1660 - 1700)
Marks the British kind's restoration of the throne after a long period of Puritan domination in England. Its symptoms include the dominance of French and classical influences on poetry and drama. Writers include, Dryden, Lock, Temple, Pepys, and Aphra Behn.
Augustan Age (1700 - 1750_
Marked byt he imitation of Virgil and Horace in English letters. Writers include Addison, Steele, Swift, and Pope.
Age of Johnson (1750 1790)
Marks the transition toward the upcoming romanticism though the period is still largely neoclassical. Major writers include Samuel Johnson, James Bswell, and Edward Gibbon.
Romantic Period (1790 - 1830)
Romantic poets write about nature, imagination, and individuality in England. Some romantics include Coleridge, Blake, Keats, Shelley, Byron, and Wordsworth. Jane Austen also writes at this time though she is not typiclly categorized with the male romantic poets. In america, this period is mirrored in the transcendental period with the writings of Emerson and Thoreau. Gothic writings overlap with the Romantic and Victorian periods: Anne Radcliffe, Monk Lewis, Bram Stoker, Poe, and Hawthorne.
Victorian Period and the Nineteenth Century (1832 - 1901)
Sentimental novels typify the period of Queen Victoria's reign. British writers include Browning, Tennyson, Arnold, Browning, Dickens, and the Bronte sisters. The end of the Victorian period is marked by intellectual m ovements of aestethicism and the decadence in the writings of Pater and Wilde. In America, naturalist writers like Stephen Crane flourish, as do early free verse poets like Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson.
Modern Period (1914 - 1945)
In Britain, Modernist writers include yeats, Seamus Heaney, Dylan thomas, W.H. Auden, Woolf, and Wilfred Owen. In America, the modernist period includes Frost and Flannery O'conner including the famous writers of the Lost Generation such as Earnest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and William Faulkner. The Harlem Renaissance marks the rise of black writers such as James Baldwin and Ralph Waldo Emerson. Realism is the dominant fashion, but the disillusionment in the aftermath of the World Wars leads to new experimentation.
Postmodern Period (1945 - onward)
T.S Eliot, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Sir Tom stoppard, John Fowles, Allen Ginsberg, Thomas Pynchon, and other modern writers, poets, and playwrights experiment with metafiction and fragmented poetry.
Postmodern: Multiculturalists
leasds to increasing canonization of non-caucasian writers such as Langston Hughes, Toni Morrison, Sandra Cisneros, and Zora Neale Hurston.
Postmodern: Magical Realists
Such as Gabriel Garcia Marques, Luis Borges, Alejo Carpentier, Gunter Grass, and Salman Rusghdie flourish with surrealistic writings embroidered in the conventions of realism.
Historical criticism
uses history to understand a literary work more clearly. Looks at the social an d intellectual currents in which the author wrote.
Textual Criticism: Recension
is the selection, after thorough examination of the material, of only the most trustworthy evidence on which to base a test.
Textual Criticism: Emendation
The effort to eliminate all the errors found in even the best manuscripts.
Feminist Criticism
seeks to correct or supplement what is regarded as a predominately male-dominated critical perspective with a female consciousness. Attempts to understand literature from a woman's point of view.
Biographical Criticism
uses knowledge of the author's life experiences to gain a better understanding of the writers work
Cultural Criticism
Focuses on the historical, social, and economic contexts of a work.
Formal Criticism
Pays particular attention to formal elements of the work, such as language, structure, and tone. It analyzes form and meaning, paying special attention to diction, paradox, metaphor, and symbols. it also examines plot, characterization, and narrative technique.
Activating Prior Knowledge
Readers pay more attention when they relate to the text. Readers naturally bring their prior knowledge and experience to reading, but they comprehend better when they think about the connections they make metween the text, their lives, and the larger world.
Predicting or Asking Questions
Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged. When readers ask questions, even before they read, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning. Asking questions is at the heart of thoughtful reading.
Visualizing
Active readers create visual images based on the words they read in the text. these created pictures enhance their understanding.
Drawing Inferences
Inferring occurs when the readers take what they know, garner clues from the text, and think ahead to make a judgment, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come.
Determining Important Ideas
Thoughtful readers grasp essential ideas and important information while reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.
Synthesizing Information
Synthesizing involves combining new information with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation. Reviewing, sorting, and sifting important information can lead to new insights that change the way the readers think.
Repairing understanding
If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding.
Confirming
As students read and after they read, they can confirm the predictions they have originally made. There is no wrong answer. One can confirm negatively or positively.
Using Parts of a Book
Students should use book parts - such as charts, diagrams, indexes, and the table of contents - to improve their understanding of the reading content.
Reflection
An important strategy for students to think about, or reflect on, what they have just read. Reflection can be simple thinking or it can be more formal, such as a discussion or writing in a journal.
Semantics
Is the same as context. AS students read, they can guess at the words they do not know by considering the rest of the passage. The content restricts the words that can fit.
Syntax
the way in which linguistic elements (as words) are put together to form constituents (as phrases or clauses). Cueing places less emphasis on "sounding out words" (phoneme-grapheme relationships) and on the individual words (morphemes) themselves than on syntax and semantics.
Activating Prior Knowledge
When students make connections to the text they are reading, their comprehension increases. Other names for these connection include prior knowledge, schema, relevant background knowledge, or experience.
Metacognition
IS that vital component of reading that calls for critical thinking or "thinking about thinking"
Miscue Analysis
The process of assessing the strategies that students use in their reading. The processing occurring during reading were significant. After determining the words that the child did not read successfully, the teacher can analyze the missed words to determine the reason that the child missed them. This assessment of missed words is miscued analysis.
Literal Comprehension
The literal level of comprehension, the lowest level of understanding, involves reading the lines; one reads the words and understands exactly what is on the page.
Interpretive or Inferential Comprehension
The interpretive level of comprehension is the second level of understanding; it is the next to lowest level of comprehension, just above literal comprehension. It requires the student to read between the lines; all the answers are not spelled out in print. May require readers to define figurative language or to identify terms.
Critical Comprehension
may require one to read ad think beyond the printed text. Includes indicating whether the text is true or false, distinguishing between fact and opinion, detecting propaganda, judging whether the author is qualified to write the text. recognizing biases or fallacies, identifying stereotypes, and making assumptions.
Creative Comprehension
Requires readers to respond, often emotionally, to something they are reading.
Story Mapping
Helps students think about a passage and its structure.
Venn Diagrams
enable a reader to compare two characters, concepts, places or things by placing specific criteria attributes for one in the left circle, for the other in the right circle.
Fishbone organizer
Helps the reader to illustrate cause and effect.
Ethno Linguistics
is a study of how language determines and reflects worldviews of people.
Analytic Language
is one that uses very few bound morphemes - prefixes and suffixes and inflections or grammatical endings of nouns.
Synthetic Language
Uses large numbers of bound morphemes and often combines strings of them to form a single word.
Affixiation
Adding a prefix or suffix to a word.
Compunding
Joining two or more words, like whitewash and skateboard
Conversion
Using a word of one category in another category without change; for instance, using the noun comb also as the verb comb
Stress Shift
Changing the stress of the syllables to another changers the meaning and the pronunciation, as in record and record
Clipping
Shortening words, as in math for mathematics.
Acronym Formation
Forming a word from the initials of a group of words
Blending
Combining two words, such as breakfast and lunch to make brunch.
Backformation
A suffix identifiable from other words is cut off of a base which has previously not been a word; that base then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use. For example, self destruct, which derives from self-destruction.
Using brand names as common words
Using the name of a product to act as a noun or verb.
Onomatapoeia
Words invented to imitate th sounds they represent; pow, bop, splat.
Borrowing
Taking a word from another language.
Declarative Sentence
Makes a statement
Interrogative sentence
Asks a question
Imperative Sentence
Gives a command or makes a request.
Simple Sentence
Has a subject and verb
Compound Sentence
Is made up of two independent clauses - clauses that have a subject and a verb and express a complete thought - joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or-), a correlative conjunction(either or, neither or) or a semi-colon.
Complex Sentence
Has a dependent clause - a clause that contains a subject and a verb and that does not express a complete thought - and an independent clause.
Complex Compound
A sentence with at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause.
Run - On Sentences
Several thoughts incorrectly joined
Sentence Fragment
an incomplete thought - without subject and verb.
Noun
Person, Place, or thing
Pronoun
A word that can replace a noun: personal - I, you, etc. Relative: who, which, that. Interrogative: who, what, when, etc. Demonstrative: That, this, these, etc. Indefinite: One, any, each. Reciprocal: each other, one another. Intensive: myself, yourself, herself, etc. Reflexive: myself, yourself, etc.
Verb
A word or phrase that shows action or a state of being. Examples of phrases that show action include was writing.
Transitive Verbs
may take a direct object, as is in Bob beat the rug; beat is a transitie verb, and the rug is the direct object.
Intransitive verbs
Do not require and object. The chorus was singing as they entered the building; there is no recipient of the action was singing.
Adjective
modifies or limits a noun or pronoun
Descriptive adjective
names a quality of an object: blue notebook.
Limiting adjective
Restricts the meaning or indicates quality or number
Possessive Adjective
His jacket, her jacket.
Demonstrative Automobile
This automobile
Interrogative adjective
Which cat belongs to you?
Articles
a, an, the
Numerical Adjectives
one ticket, second half of the game.
Comparative and Superlative adjectives
indicate degree. bigger (comparative). biggest (superlative).
Adverb
A word that limits or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Herman walks quickly (quickly describes the verb walks). Jane colors very well (The adverb very modifies the adverb well). Billy put the cat outside earlier (the adverb outside modifies the verb put, outside tells us where billy put the cat. The adverb earlier modifies the verb put and tells when billy put the cat outside.
Preposition
Relates a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence; the preposition and its object form a prepositional phrase. Bill drew a circle around the subject (Around is the preposition; subject is the object of the preposition; around the subject is the prepositional phrase).
Conjunction
IS a word that may connect words, phrases, and causes. Coordinating conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank (and, but, or, nor) Subordinating conjunctions - examples include although, after, because, if - join subordinate clauses with main clauses.
Interjection
A word inserted or interjected to show emotion. Wow! That was a surprise.
Modifiers
May describe or limit the meaning of a word or group of words. Both adjectives and adjective phrases can modify a noun: The red boat won the race. Both Adverbs and adverbial phrases can modify a verb: Tomorrow I will begin driving.
Phrase
is a group of words without a subject and predicate. A phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or a verb. The team ran across the field. (A prepositional phrase used as an adverb.) The horse winning the race belongs to me. (a participle phrase used as an adjective)
Clause
contains a subject and a verb. A clause may be independent or dependent. An independent clause is a complete thought.
Comma
In a series: When more than one adjective describes a noun, use a comma to separate and emphasize each adjective. Is used to separate words, phrases, and whole ideas (clauses), it still takes the place of and when used this way. With a long introductory phrase: Usually if a phrase is more than five or six words or a dependent clause proceeds the subject. To separate sentences with two main ideas. To separate an introductory subordinate clause: when a subordinate clause introduces a sentence, a comma should be used after the clause. To slow the flow of a sentence. With nonrestrictive elements. To set off direct quotations. To set of contrasting elements: Her intelligence, not her beauty, got her the job. In dates.
Semicolon
To separate independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction. To separate two independent clauses connected by a conjunctive adverb: He took great care of his work; therefore, he was very successful. To combine two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction if either or both of the clauses contain internal punctuation. To separate items in a series when the items have internal punctuation.
Colon
To introduce a list (one item may constitute as a list). To introduce a list preceded by as follows or the following. To separate two independent clauses when the second clauses is a restatement or explanation of the first. To introduce a word group that is a restatement, explanation, or summary of the first sentence. To introduce a formal appositive. To separate long words from a quotation, if the quotation is formal, long, or paragraphed separately.
Quotation Marks and Italics
To set of quoted phrases, words, and sentences. Use a single quotation to set off quoted material within a quote. When writing dialogue. To enclose words used as words. To set off slang words or phrases within more formal writing. When words are meant to have an unusual or specific significance to the reader.
Semantics
Semantics is the study of meaning as conveyed through language. Semantics asks how we can use language to express things about the real world and how the meanings of linguistic expressions can reflect peoples thoughts. Semantic knowledge is compositional; the meaning of a sentence is based on the meanings of the words it contains and the order in which they appear.
Ambiguity
is the use of words that allow alternative interpretations. the use of ambiguity may expand the literal meaning of a a passage, but it may promote errors in understanding.
Euphemism
is the substitution of less-offensive words for words considered explicitly offensive.
Doublespeak
is the misuse of language, often in a deliberate and even calculating way in order to mislead. For instance, the phrase physical persuasion may be used instead of torture.
Connotation and Denotation
is the impression or feeling a word gives beyond its exact meaning; its the opposite of denotation, which is saying exactly what is meant Instead of saying, "We had two inches of rain in a two-hour period" one might say "We had a real frog - strangler"
Jargon
Is the vocabulary of a particular profession or may refer to any speech or writing that one does not understand. Educators, for example, use terms such as learning styles and behavioral objectives that may not be clear to the public.
Prewriting
The planning phase of the writing process. Everything the writer does before creating the first draft is part of this phase.
Freewriting
Strategies for identifying a subject include listing interests and experiences, keeping a personal journal, using pieces of literature for inspiration, and a technique called freewriting. Students let their minds roam free and write about ideas as they think of them. Focused freewriting - each student focuses on an idea, word, or phrase and then writes everything possible about the focus topic that comes to mind.
Descriptive Writing
To set the scene for a novel or to describe a place in a geography text, a writer often uses descriptive writing.
Ordered List
Using an ordered list, the author can present information more quickly and concisely. Sequence organization
Sequence Organization
Organize a sequence to suit the purpose of the text.
Clustering
A nonlinear activity that generates ideas, images, and feelings around a stimulus word.
Expository Writing
The primary purpose of the exposition is to explain and clarify ideas.
Analogy
A stylistic device that can be used as a method of argument. An analogy compares one thing to another thing.
Extended Metaphor
A metaphor is a means of defining one thing in terms of something very different. Every metaphor has two parts: the tenor, or the thing being defined, and the vehicle, the thing doing the defining. AN extended metaphor is a metaphor that is developed for several lines and sometimes throughout an entire essay or poem.
Allusion
An allusion is a reference to a historical, literary, or otherwise generally familiar character or event that helps make an idea understandable.
Style
The interaction of language, word choice word order, sentence type, sentence length, use of description, and story elements such as organization, character, plot, theme, etc.
Tone
The writers attitude toward the writing itself; toward the subject; toward the people, places, time, events in the passages.