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271 Cards in this Set

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What is the degree to which a test measures what it's designed to test?
Criterion Referenced Tests
Measure what the person is able to do and shows what skills they have mastered. Compare a persons performance with their own past performance.
Norm-Referenced Test
A standardized test that is given to students of a similar grade level. Results are compared to students of similar characteristics.
Constructive Response
A response, such as an essay, that requires a higher level of thinking and reasoning. More difficult to grade.
Selected Response
A response that is efficient and can be graded quickly. Students are presented options to choose from.
Formative Assessment
Immidiate evidence of student learning.
Summative Assessment
Comprehensive; used to check level of learning at the end.
Social Learning Theory
Learn by watching others.
Fixed action patterns.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Development is unconcious. Relies heavily on emotion.
Attachment Theory
Attachment is a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings. Earliest bonds between children and caregivers have tremendous impact.
Erik Erikson
The most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality is social interaction.
Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
At certain ages, people experience and resolve conflicts.
Erikson: Infant
Trust vs. Mistrust. Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet basic physiological and social needs.
Erikson: Toddlerhood
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. Child learns what they can control. Develops a sense of free will as well as regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.
Erikson: Early Childhood
Initiative Vs. Guilt. Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions.
Erikson: Middle Childhood / Elementary
Accomplishment/Industry Vs. Inferiority. Child learns to do things well or correctly in comarison to a standard or to others.
Erikson: Adolescence
Identity Vs. Role Confusion. Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires.
James Marcia
Canadian developmental psychologist. Expanded on the Psychosocial Theory work of Erik Erikson.
Identity Diffusion
The stage in which the young person is not currently going through a crisis and has not made a commitment.
Identity Foreclosure
The stage in which the young person has made a commitment wihtout having gone through a crisis.
Identity Moratorium
The stage in which the young person is currently in a crisis but has not yet made a commitment.
Identity Achievement
The stage in which the person has gone through a crisis and has made a commitment to a certain value or role.
Humanist Theory
A person has control of their behavior, freedom of choice, self-determination, and is responsible for their own self-direction.
Social Learning Theory
People learn by watching others,
Behavioral Learning
Emphasize the learning of facts and skills that authorities have decided are important. Uses drills and rote learning. Learning is a process of changing/conditioning behavior.
Emphasizes teaching children to make their own meaning of the world through experiences.
Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning
Growing children advance through definate stages of moral development. They progress consecutively from stage one without skipping or going back. The stages are of thought processing.
Kohlberg Stage 1 of moral reasoning
Punishment and obedience. Might makes right.
Kohlberg Stage 2 of moral reasoning
Instumental exchange. The Egoist. Do unto others as they do unto you.
Kohlberg Stage 3 of moral
Interpersonal (tribal) conformity. Good Boy/ Good Girl.
Kohlberg Stage 4 of moral
Law and oeder (societal conformity). The good citizen.
Kohlberg stage 5 of moral
Prior rights and social contract. The philosopher/King.
Kohlberg stage 6 of moral
Universal ethical principles. The prophet/Messiah.
Deductive Reasoning
Top-down approach. General to specific.
Inductive reasoning
Down-up. Specific observations to broader theories.
Body and Brain Development: Birth-2 months
Can lift and turn head when laying on back, neck can't support the head when in a sitting position, primitive reflexes in full operation.
Child Development: 3-6 Months
Begins to smile, enjoys playing with others, raises head and chest, recognizes familiar objects.
Child Development: 7-12 Months
Social play, watches self in mirror, sits, transfers objects from hand to hand, responds to own name.
Child Development: Toddlers
Imitates behavior of others, aware of being separate of others, increasing independance, shows defiant behavior, sorts shapes and colors, begins to pretend play.
Child Development: Preschool
Can take turns in games, understands "mine" and "his/hers", shows wide range of emotions, completes puzzles, follows a two-three part command, walks up and down stairs alternating feet, kicks ball, runs easily
Child Development: School age (5 years old)
Wants to please friends and be like friends, shows more independance, can distinguish fantasy from reality, hops, sumersaults, swings.
Child Development: Preteens
World expands out of imidiate family; makes friends. Expanding experiences, can see consequences for their actions, can talk through problems, can set and meet a goal.
Child Development: Adolescents
Rapid gains in height and weight, puberty, brain development,
Primary Resource
First hand documents.
Secondary Resource
Describe and/or offer annalysis.
Predictive Research
Purpose is to predict something.
Descriptive Research
Purpose is to describe something that's known.
Analytical Research
Purpose is to analyze known information.
Latin Grammar Schools
Established in Boston. Originally for sons of certain social class who were destined for leadership roles in church, state, or courts.
Normal Schools
The purpose was to train teachers.
Dame Schools
Day care. Some taught the basics, others did not.
New Harmony
The role of education in a democracy is to sensitize young people to the delicate balance between individual growth and community responsibility.
Chautauqua Institution
Adult education intitution.
Monoteistic, founded by the prophet Muhammed.
Believe in modern day prophets.
Believes that the Bible is absolute and in eternal salvation.
Founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama; known as Buddha.
Piagets Sensory Motor Stage (birth-2 yrs)
Infants mainly make use of senses and motor capabilities to experience the environment. For instance, if infants cannot see or touch an object, they stop trying to find it. Once infants develop the capability to recognize that a hidden object still continues to exist, they start searching for it.
Piagets Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs)
Children start to use symbols such as language to represent objects. However, the Preoperational child still learns from concrete evidence while adults can learn in abstract way. The Preoperational child is also unaware of another person’s perspective. They exhibit egocentric thought and language.
Piagets Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years)
The concrete operational child begins to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience. Operations are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation.
Piagets Formal Operational Stage (11 Years and Beyond)
students have the ability to consider many possibilities for a given condition. They are able to deal with propositions that explain concrete facts. They have the ability to use planning to think ahead. They increase their ability to think abstractly.
Name three areas with the most striking differences in beginning of the year management practices between more effective teachers and less effective teachers.
1. Establishing classroom rules and procedures
2. Monitoring students
3. Delivering consequences
Define "more effective" teachers.
More effective teachers are those who promote in their students significant achievement gains and high levels of cooperation and task involvement.
Name three factors that contribute to an effective room arrangement.
1. The schools instructional programs and academic goals for students.
2. The need for wasy flow of traffic and accessible supplies.
3. The need for unobstructed views for the teacher and students.
What are the purposes of conflict resolution?
Provide an environment in which each learner can feel physically and psychologically free from threats and danger and can find opportunities to work and learn with others for the mutual achievement of all.
Process Curriculum Conflict Resolution
Teaching conflict resolution as a separate course, a distinct curriculum, or a daily lesson plan.
Mediation Program Conflict Resolution
Selected individuals (adults and/or students) are trained in the principles of conflict resolution and mediationto provide neutral third-party input to assist others in reaching resolution to a conflict.
Peaceable Classroom Conflict Resolution
Integrates conflict resolution education into the curriculum and classroom management strategy.
Peaceable Schools Conflict Resolution
Built on the Peaceable Classroom approah; uses conflict resolution as a system for managing the school as well as the classroom. Every member of the school community, including parents, learns conflict resolution principles and processes.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them.
Piaget's Theory: Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old)
The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. This is the stage where a child does not know that physical objects remain in existence even when out of sight (object permanance).
Piaget's Theory: Preoperational Stage (ages 2-7)
The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations.
Piaget's Theory: Concrete Operations (ages 7-11)
As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. For example, arithmetic equations can be solved with numbers, not just with objects.
Piaget's Theory: Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15)
By this point, the child's cognitive structures are like those of an adult and include conceptual reasoning.
Piaget: Equalibrium
A repeated experience.
Piaget: Loss of Equilibrium
A different, or new, experience.
Jerome Bruner
Psychologist of the 20th century. Key figure in cognitive revolution and field of education. He believed that how one conceives education is a function of how they conceive their culture and its aims.
Bruner: Intuative thinking
The intellectual technique of arriving at plausable byt tentative formulations without going through analytical steps. Bruner argues its a much neglected but essential feature of productive thinking.
Analytical thinking
Analyze everything. Find conclusions to be valid or invalid.
Theme one of the process of education (Bruner)
The role of stucture in learning and how it may be made central in teaching. The teaching and learning of structure, rather than simply the mastery of facts and techniques, is at the center of the classic problem of transfer... If earlier learning is to render later learning easier, it must do so by providing a general picture in terms of which the relations between things encountered earlier and later are made as clear as possible.
Theme two of the process of education (Bruner)
Readiness for learning. Here the argument is that schools have wasted a great deal of time by postponing the teaching of important areas because they are deemed too difficult.
Theme three of the process of education (Bruner)
Intuitive and analytical thinking.
Theme four of the process of education (Bruner)
Motives for learning. Ideally, interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning.
Piaget: Assimilation
The process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be places in preexisting cognative structures.
Piaget: Accomodation
The process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment.
Vygotsky Social Development Theory
Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.
Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development
A level of development attained when the children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction.
Two main principles of Vygotskys theory:
1. Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age.
2. Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
In psychology, it refers to an information processing view of an individuals psychological functions.
Awareness of one's own thinking. It's essential for developing critical thinking skills. Objective is to have the learner become aware of his own cognitive processes and to become involved in understanding what he is thinking as he proceeds. The student is reflecting to see whether or not what he or she is doing is working.
Dewey: Reflective thought
active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends
When applied to oneself, it's referred to as self-evaluation.
Examples of questions that are successful for changing behavior
What do you want? What are you choosing to do? If what you are choosing is not getting you what you want, then what is your plan? What are your procedures to implement the plan?
Questions for getting on task:
Does what you are doing help you get your work done? If you would like to get your work done, what would be your first step? What do you like to do that you can apply to this task?
Questions for commitment:
In the realm of all things possible, could you have kept your commitment? What are you going to do to make it happen? On a scale of 1-10, how would you rank your commitment to it?
Questions for improving quality:
How does that look to you? What would you like to have imporoved even more? If there were no limitations on what you did, what would allow you to do it even better?
Stage one of learning:
Noticing. Being observant, you cannot learn something if you do not notice it.
Stage two of learning:
Making sense. Getting to know the material as coherent, fitting the facts together like a jigsaw, but not relating the material to other ideas.
Stage three of learning:
Making meaning. The start of relating the new material to other ideas, putting it into context.
Stage four of learning:
Working with meaning. Going beyond the given.
Stage five of learning:
Transformative learning. Ideas and understanding are now restructed, and the learner is able to evaluate the processess that lead to this new learning.
Four pillars of No Child Left Behind
accountability for results, emphasis on doing what works based on scientific research, expanded parental options, expanded local control and flexibility.
Giving up ones previous cultural identity and taking on traits associated with the new culture.
Maintaining a balance of old and new cultures.
Ways to apply the principles of language aquisition
Focus on the ability to communicate, comprehension precedes production, production emerges in stages, create a low risk environment
Inclusionary Classroom
One in which students with special needs are able to remain in the classroom throughout the day, to the highest extent possible.
Least Restrictive Environment. May allow special needs students into typical classrooms with additional teacher help, as necessary.
Six key components of original 1975 IDEA
1. Free and appropriate education for all children with disabilities.
2. Special education and related services are to be provided without cost to the parents.
3. Appropriate education was the obligation of regular education, special education, and related services intended to meet the individual needs of students.
4. Construct an IEP for every student who qualified for services.
5. To the highest extent possible, all students with disabilities were to be educated in the LRE.
6. Parents were given the right to participate in every decision related to their child's education.
Guidelines and processes for referring a student with a suspected disability for evaluation for special education services:
Pre-referral, referral, evaluation, IEP meeting; and if warranted; annual review and re-evaluation.
Multicultural education
an attempt to embrace different cultures in the classroom without stereotypes.
Formal assessment
One that has a standardized and formal procedure for administering, timing, and scoring. EX: Norm-referenced and Criterion referenced.
Informal Assessment
Used to assess varying abilities in contexts that resemble actual situations requiring those abilities. Informal assessments are often used by classroom teachers to determine the level of student understanding.
Examples of informal assessment:
Observation, anecdotal, homework, brainstorming, logs and journals.
Student Teams - Achievement Divisions (STAD)
a teacher would divide the students into groups, present the lesson, allow students to study in their groups, and give individual quizzes
Cultural Pluralism
When small groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities.
Lev Vygotsky
pointed out that language is a reflection of one’s culture and environment therefore, it’s critical for learning success.
Vygotsky’s theory, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the gap between a child’s current level of development and potential level of development or functioning given adult guidance.
approach used by parents and teachers to provide assistance to children/students by modeling appropriate behavior or skills. In the classroom, teachers model or demonstrate specific strategies and gradually shift the responsibility to the student to demonstrate.
The Four Language Systems include:
The phonological or sound system of language
The syntactic or structural system of language
The semantic or meaning system of language
The pragmatic or social & cultural use system of language
The Phonological System
The phonological system is important in both oral and written language. There are 26 letters and 44 sounds and many ways to combine the letters–particularly the vowels–to spell many of the sounds. Sounds are called phonemes, and represented in print.

Graphemes are letter combinations. Students in the primary grades also use their understanding of the phonological system to create invented or temporary spellings.
The Syntactic System
The syntactic system of language is the structural (grammar) organization of English that regulates how words are combined into sentences. Word order is important in English and during the pre-school years, children learn to understand, ask questions, and construct statements.

Many of the capitalization and punctuation rules that elementary students learn reflect the syntactic system of language. This also applies to simple, compound, and complex sentence structure.

Morphemes are word forms and another component of syntax. Morphemes are also the smallest meaningful units in language. Morphemes are word parts that may change the meaning of a word.
The Semantic System
A third language system is the semantic or meaning system. Vocabulary is the key component of this system. Children have a vocabulary of 5,000 words by the time they enter school. During the elementary grades, they acquire as many as 3,000 words yearly through reading, social studies, science, and other curricular areas. They also learn about synonyms, antonyms, wordplay, and figurative language, including idioms.
The Pragmatic System
The fourth language system is pragmatics, which deals with the social and cultural aspects of language use. Language varies among social classes, cultural/ethnic groups, and geographic regions. These varieties are known as dialects. Teachers should not replace a students’ home dialect with Standard English. According to cultural pluralism, students have a right to retain their cultural identity within American society.
Reflective Teaching
Reflective teaching involves the ability to: research & explore, question & analyze, and make changes to both lessons and curriculum based on learning results experienced in the classroom.
Teacher Centered Classroom
In a Teacher Centered Classroom, the teacher is the leader and demand respect. Students are expected to interact, learn social skills, listen, and respect differences. Students tend to abide by and follow the class rules they created with assistance from the teacher. Students learn cooperation, responsibility, problem-solving skills and self-discipline. However, there is one drawback, when a classroom is teacher centered, students are sometimes passively dependent on the teacher’s knowledge. Students are often expected to regurgitate what they have learned on meaningless tests, that they tend to forget within days.
Student Centered Classroom
In the Student Centered Classroom, teachers tend to function as colleagues rather than leaders. Teachers identify creative ways to design dynamic learning environments that involve students in doing and thinking about specific subjects. Teachers provide opportunities to engage students in the processing of information.
A Cooperative Classroom
This is a setting that focuses on class meetings to solve problems. This classroom is useful in helping lower level students from depressed environments enhance their social skills.
Includes both conscious and unconscious mental processes underlying how knowledge is acquired and used for learning.
Involves changes in structure over time and it takes place in every member of a species. Development is thus governed via a biological timeline. Development involves a bi-directional relationship between structure and function. It is important to know stage-likeness of a given developmental process.
the process by which information, knowledge, ideas and skills are gained from instruction, guidance, and demonstration. However, it has been determined that this approach is not very effective and it only accounts for about 10% of actual learning.
tends to be more relevant to students and it appears to be the conscious choice of how students want to learn. This approach involves self-instruction, experimenting, inquiry, exploring, and general curiosity. Acquisition accounts for about 20% of what students learn.
the subconscious or subliminal, process by which individuals learn important things like language, prejudices, habits, social rules and behaviors. Accretion is a process where individuals are totally unaware that learning is taking place. Accretion accounts for about 70% of what individuals know and understand.
manifested via structuring, patterning, and constructing meaning, understanding, and ideas that did not exist initially. This process involves insight, reflection, creative expression, and/or group interactions. This method of learning is dependent on intelligence, synthesis, intuition, creativity, and problem-solving skills. Emergence only accounts for 1-2% of what individuals learn in a lifetime.
Constructivism Cognition
a constructive developmental process involving qualitative change in children's ability to move forward as they internalize learning tasks and skills. Reality is also a constructive process based on environmental information and current knowledge, both cognition and reality tend to influence how and what new information is acquired. Learning is viewed as a cognitive domain, and knowledge is structured in systems called schemata. During the learning process, students tend to invent new categories. One such category is called assimilation - the cognitive process where information from the environment is integrated into existing schemata. Another category is called accommodation - the cognitive process where existing schemata are modified or new schemata are restructured to fit the child’s environment.
students add new information to their view of the world
they alter that view based on the new information they have learned.
study of how individuals think, analyze, and control their own thought processes. It also refers to the knowledge children acquire about their own cognitive processes and their ability to regulate their cognitive processes to maximize learning.involves several important elements including, designing, monitoring, and assessing a specific plan of action.
Steps students should take to enhance Metacognition:
(1) identify how much they know about a specific topic to consider for a project, (2) have an idea of exactly how much time they want to devote to the project and when they expect to complete project, (3) monitor their progress by reviewing their work relative to the project, and (4) assess their performance and/or satisfaction with the project or assignment. During this phase of the project, students should ask themselves, “am I satisfied?" or, "can I do a better job?" - "if so, how?”
involves the process of grouping and/or classifying information in order to determine what kinds of things or objects match or go together.
includes various plans, ideas, and information that help one solve problems. This process is active and constantly changing as new information is acquired.
mental set
established via a force of habit and based primarily on the way individuals are accustomed to solving problems. When students are confronted with a new problem or dilemma, they attempt to solve the problem the way they learned initially. However, if the problem is unfamiliar, they will have difficulty solving the problem since they have now developed a mental set.
language arts classroom should be arranged:
Desks arranged in groups to facilitate talk and learning
Classroom libraries stocked with a variety of reading materials
Posted messages about the current day
Displays of student work and projects
A chair designated as the author’s chair
Displayed signs, labels for items, and quotations
Posted directions for activities or use of equipment
An abundant supply of materials for recording language, including pencils, pens, paper, journals and logs, books, and computers
Centers for reading and writing activities
Reference materials for literature focus units, literature circles, and theme cycles
Computer and listening centers stocked with multimedia equipment and software
A puppet stage or an area for presenting plays and storytelling
Charts for recording information (e.g., sign-in charts for attendance or writing-group charts) World-related print (e.g., newspapers, maps, and calendars)
Reading and writing materials in young children’s literacy play centers (p. 42)
Echo reading
A process that calls for the group leader to read a passage of text, and the group repeats what was read.
Chorus reading
The leader reads the main part of the poem, and the group reads the refrain or chorus in unison.
Small-group reading
The class divides into two or more groups, and each group reads one part of the poem.
Cumulative reading
A student or group reads the first line or stanza, and another student or group joins in as each line or stanza is read so that a cumulative effect is created.
A tool for teaching language arts concepts, strategies, and skills. However, the textbook’s format is inappropriate for most language arts activities.
Textbooks pose the following problems:
Little attention to listening, talking, and viewing
Excessive emphasis on grammar and usage skills
Emphasis on rote memorization rather than on effective communication
Focus on correctness rather than on experimentation with language
Few opportunities to individualize instruction
Difficulty in connecting textbook activities to literature focus units, across-the-curriculum theme cycles, and other instructional patterns
Trade Books
Written specifically for children, but they are not textbooks. Trade books are story-books, books of poetry, picture books, etc. and used in teaching language arts.
Most stories for younger children, such as Sylvester and the Magic Pebble and Officer Buckle and Gloria are picture books, and many stories for older children, including Natalie Babbitt’s Tuck Everlasting and Gary Paulsen’s Hatchet, are chapter books. A number of picture book stories appeal to older students, however, such as Pink and Say and Chris Van Allsburg’s fantasies. Many stories feature multicultural characters and themes, such as Smoky Night, about the Los Angeles riot Abuela, a fanciful story about a Hispanic child and her grandmother and The Bracelet, about a Japanese American family’s experiences in an internment camp during World War II.
Informational Books
provide information on social studies, science, math, art, music, and other topics. Some are written in a story format, such as The Magic School Bus Inside a Hurricane and Castle, whereas others are written in a more traditional informational style, with a table of contents, an index, and a glossary.
Literature Circles
are important to the cooperative reading process. Tompkins (2002) endorsed four components of literature circles that include the following: reading, responding, creating projects, and sharing.
Reading Teachers collect several copies of five or six different books and review each book with the class. Students are encouraged to sign up for the book they want to read and form separate literature circles to read and share the book. After collaborating together as a group, they organize a reading and responding schedule to discuss the book.

Responding Students meet together to discuss the book and reflect on interesting passages. In an attempt to facilitate their discussion, they assume various roles ranging from discussion leader to artist and word wizard. Afterwards, students practice their roles before they all meet again to discuss the book.

Creating projects After students finish a book, they are to prepare projects on the story to present during sharing time with classmates. Students are free to select the type of project they wish. Projects may range from murals, dramatizations, poems, or choral readings of excerpts.

Sharing is the fun part of the activity, here students meet as a class, and each group shares their book. Sharing can include a book talk, or a project to describe the book. Students are encouraged to provide enough information to create interest in the book, but they should never tell the ending because they want to encourage their classmates to read the book themselves.
Reading Workshops
designed to encourage students to read self-selected books independently or in small groups. Afterwards, they are to respond to the books by writing in their reading logs and discussing the book in small groups to students who are also reading the same book. This approach helps students to become fluent readers and to deepen their appreciation of books and reading. The reading workshops can also facilitate lifelong reading habits by introducing students to different genres, and identifying favorite authors.
Word Walls
made from large sheets of butcher paper and placed on the wall at the beginning of each class. The wall includes a group of key words listed on word-wall charts. Before class starts, both students and teachers are free to write any interesting or important word on the wall.
the cognitive process where existing schemata are modified or/and new schemata is restructured to fit the child’s environment.
an attachment to the end or beginningof base or root words. A generic term that describes prefixes and suffixes word parts "fixed to" either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the ending of words (suffixes). For example, the word disrespectfulhas two affixes, a prefix (dis-) and a suffix (-ful).
Alphabetic Principle
the notion that letters making a word have corresponding sounds, thus letters and sounds can be placed together to build words.
words with opposite meanings, (i.e., big and little).
Ausubel, Davio
pointed out that learning is based primarily on the types of superordinate processes that occur during the early learning stage. Here, new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure. Ausubel's subsumption theory is concerned with how individuals learn vast amounts of meaningful material from lecture assignments in a school setting. Verbal learning was seen as the predominant method of classroom learning. Ausubel felt discovery learning techniques are often uneconomical, inefficient, and ineffective. He felt most school learning is verbal learning (receptive learning) and indicated that individuals tend to forget things because certain details become integrated and lose their importance.
Authentic Assessment
technique to examine students’ collective abilities via real-world challenges that requires them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.
Bandura, Albert
found that although environment causes behavior, behavior also causes environment as well. Bandura labeled this concept reciprocal determinism,“both the world the individual’s behavior "cause" affect each other. Bandura is considered a “father” of the cognitive movement, or, observational learning, commonly referred to as the famous, Bobo Doll studies. Bandura called this phenomenon, observational learning or modeling, better known as the social learning theory.
a theory of animal and human learning that focuses on observable behaviors and ignores psychological activities.
Bloom's Taxonomy
was responsible for formulating a classification of "the goals of the educational process." Bloom and a group of educational psychologists developed a taxonomy based on the classification levels of intellectual behavior important to the learning process. The taxonomy included three overlapping domains including, 1.) cognitive, 2.) psychomotor, and 3.) affective. The cognitive learning domain consisted of six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. For each level, specific learning behaviors were defined as well as appropriate descriptive verbs that could be used for writing instructional objectives. For example: (1.) Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, reproduce, and state. (2.) Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, and translate.(3.) Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, and write. (4.) Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question,and test. (5.) Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, and write. And,(6.) Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, and evaluate.
Bruner, Jerome
suggested that learning is an active process where students’ constructed new ideas and concepts based upon their current/past experiences and knowledge. The learned information selected is then transformed to constructs hypotheses and makes decisions based on the cognitive structure.
Choral Reading
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency.
Classical Conditioning
suggests that behavior is somewhat controlled by association and illustrated after a neutral stimulus accepts the eliciting properties of an unconditioned stimulus through the pairing of some unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus.
Cognitive Coaching
teaching students to use their own thinking processes to solve problems.
a theory developed by Edward Thorndike. The learning theory that represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology suggesting that learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. These associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings.
Cooperative Learning
is an instructional approach that encourages students to work collaboratively as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks.
Community of Learners
is a classroom environment that promotes learning via a variety of teaching and learning strategies including, cooperative learning, collaboration, technology, etc.
constructivist theory is a general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition. Constructivism is based on the belief that children construct meaning from their experiences, and are not just passive receivers of information. Much of the theory is linked to child development research (especially Piaget's). The theory suggest that students reflect on their experiences, and construct an understanding of the world they live governed by their own "rules" to make sense of their experiences.
Conventional Spelling
standard spelling is the correct form for written documents.
Critical Thinking
the thought processes students are able to rely on relative to problem solving. Here, students use creativity, analysis, and logic regarding their ability to analyze facts, make comparisons, generate ideas, defend view points, draw inferences, evaluate arguments and solve problems.
Deductive Reasoning
initiated from the general to the specific, and often referred to as the "top-down" approach. Deductive reasoning is more narrow and primarily concerned with testing hypotheses. In contrast, Inductive Reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the beginning of the investigation.
Dewey, John
was concerned with how student the classroom environment affected learning.
two letters that represent one speech sound, as EA in BREAD, CH in CHAT, or NG in SING.
two-vowel combinations where both vowels are heard, but not quite making their usual sounds because of the blending, i.e., oy in TOY.
Derivational Relations Spelling
common among students ages 11-14. Here, students explore the relationship between spelling and meaning during the derivational relations stage, and learn that words with related meanings are often related in spelling despite changes in vowel and consonant sounds (e.g., wise-wisdom, sign-signal, nation-national). Examples of spelling errors include: CRITISIZE (criticize), APPEARENCE (appearance), and COMMITTE or COMMITEE (committee). The focus in this stage is on morphemes, and students learn about Greek and Latin root words and affixes. They also begin to examine etymologies and the role of history in shaping how words are spelled. They learn about eponyms (words from people’s names), such as maverick and sandwich. The following concepts are learned at this stage of spelling development:
Consonant alternations
(e.g., soft-soften, magic-magician)
Vowel alternations
e.g., please-pleasant, define-definition, explain-explanation)
Echo Reading
a strategy where the teacher reads a line or passage with good expression, and calls on students to read it back. This is a good technique to use with Emergent Readers to help them build reading fluency.
Emergence Learning
manifested via structuring, patterning, and constructing meaning, understanding, and ideas that did not exist initially. This process involves insight, reflection, creative expression, and/or group interactions. This method of learning is dependent on intelligence, synthesis, intuition, creativity, and problem-solving skills. Emergence only accounts for 1-2% of what individuals learn in a lifetime.
Emergent Reader
the reader at the beginning stages of learning to read and developing an association of print with meaning. During this stage of reading development, children engage in reading play and retelling familiar stories from memory and using pictures to make predictions.
Emergent Spelling
typical of preschoolers, ages three to five and involves the stringing and scribbling of letters to form words. Emergent spelling represents a natural, early expression of the alphabet and other concepts about writing. Children may write from left to right, right to left, top to bottom, or randomly across the page. Although students tend to use both upper- and lowercase letters, they tend to prefer using uppercase letters. This is the period when students learn:

The distinction between drawing and writing
How to form letters
The direction of writing on a page
Some letter-sound matches
Erikson, Erik
developed the theory of psychosocial development relative to the eight stages of progression toward self-esteem. This theory support components of both Piaget and Vygotsky stages of development theories. Erikson's development of identity continues throughout one's live time and, actually, it is never completed.
the history or study of words
Experiential Learning
credited to Carl Rogers who suggested that all human beings have a natural propensity to learn. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning via: setting a positive classroom climate for learning; clarifying the purposes and rules; organizing and providing learning resources; balancing both intellectual and emotional components of learning; and ensuring that students engage in self-evaluation to assess their progress and success.
coined by Piaget to identify a process that regulates tension between assimilation (information) and accommodation (learning). Equilibration implies that individuals learn through experiences somewhat different from previous experiences. Thus, their mental structure is modified in small steps. Individuals learn best when the new incoming information is slightly different from existing information. This process will allow the new information to be assimilated with a small degree of accommodation.
Formative Evaluation
ongoing evaluation during an instructional sequence to allow midstream adaptation and improvement of the project.
Gardner, Howard
credited with coining the Multiple Intelligences Theory which is a pluralized way of understanding the intellect. Researchers believe that each person's level of intelligence is made up of autonomous faculties that can work individually or in concert with other faculties. Gardner identified seven such faculties he labels as `intelligences' including: musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, linguistic intelligence, special intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and, intrapersonal intelligence.
Gestalt theory
founded by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka. The fundamental premise of Gestalt psychology relates to a sense of wholeness. Gestalt theory emphasized a higher-order cognitive process relative to behavior, and endorses the notion of grouping characteristics of stimuli to allow for the interpretation of a problem. The fundamental properties relative to grouping were called the laws of organization and explained in the context of perception and problem solving. The laws of organization included: proximity - elements tend to be grouped together according to their location, similarity – implying that items which are analogous to some degree tend to be grouped together, closure – suggest that items are grouped together if they complete some entity, and simplicity - items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness.
Glaser, William
credited with the concept control theory – a motivation theory developed by that contends that behavior is never caused by a response to an outside stimulus. Instead, the control theory states that behavior is inspired by what a person wants most at any given time: survival, love, power, freedom, or any other basic human need.
Guided Reading
a strategy where experienced readers provide structure via modeling strategies in order to move beginning readerstowards independence.
Guided Writing
classroom teacher supports student development with the writing process. Students are required to write sentences or passages while the teacher guides the process and instruction through conferences and minilessons.
Guthrie, E
credited as the exponent originator. According to Guthrie, all learning was a consequence of association between a particular stimulus and response. Simple contiguous (close together in time or space) association of a stimulus and response can lead to a change in behavior. Thus, the role of motivation is to create a state of arousal and activity that will produce a given response that can now be conditioned. In addition, contiguity theory indicates that forgetting is due in part, to interference rather than the passage of time, as stimuli tends to become associated with new responses and old responses gradually, become unlearned.
words that are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (bow and arrow vs. bow of a ship) .
the use of words peculiar to a particular language with a meaning that differs from typical syntactic patterns or from the literal meaning of its parts taken together. Some examples of idiomatic expressions would include, "John kicked the bucket" means "John passed away," or "chill out" means "relax, don't sweat it."
Information Processing
a theory advanced by George A. Miller who stressed the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two). The term chunk represents any meaningful unit (i.e., digits, words, pictures, etc.). The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short-term memory became a basic element of all subsequent memory theories.
Initial Blends
the joining of two or more consonant sounds, represented by letters that begins a word without losing the identity of the sounds, such as /bl/ in black, the joining of the first consonant and vowel sounds in a word, such as /b/ and /a/ in baby. This skill is important in learning phonics.
Interactive Writing
here, teachers and students compose passages and stories that are written collaboratively. Students are free to print some words or interact with the print as facilitated by teacher (shared pen).
Invented Spelling
a technique used by beginning writers to spell words using whatever knowledge of sounds or visual patterns when formal spelling strategy is not yet learned.
Kohlberg, Lawrence
developed the theory suggesting that children proceed through a series of stages during which they refine their concept of justice. The Theory of Moral Reasoning is designed to help teachers identify a student's level of reasoning and to stimulate their moral and behavioral growth.
Learning Centers
multi-level stations where activities designed for specific instructional purposes to provide reinforcement, independent practice, and Discovery. In an early childhood program, this is an area that contains materials, such as blocks, pretend household items or art supplies, where children can explore their own interests at their own pace.
Letter Name Spelling
common to students five to seven yearsof age. Here, students learn to represent phonemes in words with letters. This shows that they have a rudimentary understanding of the alphabetic principle - suggesting that a link exists between letters and sounds.
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
a method of teaching reading by using the reader's own dictated language. This approach allows the reader to read words common to their environment.
Literature Circles
important to the cooperative reading process. Tompkins (2002) endorsed four components of literature circles including: reading, responding, creating projects, and sharing.
Mastery Learning
proposes that all children can learn when provided with the appropriate learning conditions in the classroom.
associated to direct instruction and skill-and-drill activities. Here, teachers use direct instruction during the mini-lesson to teach about reading and writing procedures, skills, and strategies. The second kind of teaching is indirect teaching. Here, teachers use indirect teaching for brief, on-the-spot mini-lesson as they respond to students’ questions or assist students who need specific help. Mini-lesson takes place during whole-class activities, conferences with students, or working with small groups. Teachers may also do indirect teaching as they model reading when reading aloud to the class, and as they model writing during collaborative writing exercises. (Tompkins, 2002 - p. 66)
Mnemonic Device
a device, such as a formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering.
word forms and another component of syntax. Morphemes are also the smallest meaningful units in language and word parts that could also change the meaning of a word.
Maslow, Abraham and the Hierarchy of Human Needs
An important aspect of his theory is based on the premise that within each individual are forces that both seeks growth and, at the same time, actively resist growth. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs has five levels. Physiological/biological needs are the most demanding. only after hunger, thirst, and the need for shelter have been satisfied, do the needs at the next higher level emerge. Safety needs include security, protection from physical and emotional harm, and the desire for good health. Belonging and love seek the need for family and friends in the individual and the feeling of acceptance and friendship in relations with others. Need for esteem follows and moves the individual to their first internal demand for self respect, autonomy, achievement along with status, recognition, and attention. Self-actualization assumes that lower needs have been satisfied; personal motivation is re-directed towards developing one's potential, to "become" what you are capable of achieving in life.
the terms used to describe words whose pronunciations suggest their meaning (e.g., meow, buzz, zoom).
Operant Conditioning
coined by B.F. Skinner, is based upon the premise that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. The change in behavior is a result of the student’s response to events (stimuli) occurring in one’s environment. A response produces a consequence such as, jumping rope or learning to swim. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Skinner examined how learning was affected by stimuli presented after an act was performed. He discovered that certain stimuli caused the organism to repeat an act more frequently. He labeled “stimuli” with this effect the "reinforces." Today, classroom teachers are the recipients of this finding by using reinforcement as a means of controlling and motivating student behavior. The term "behavior modification" is an important technique teachers employ in improving the learning and classroom behavior of their students.
the study of the nature and use of symbols in a writing system; correct or standardized spelling according to established usage in a given language.
Pavlov, Ivan P.
discovered "conditioning" and initially believed that all behavior was reflexive. Pavlov thought that all learning, whether the elicited responses in animals, or of highly conceptual behaviors in humans was due to the mechanisms of classical conditioning. We now believe theory to be wrong.
A minimal sound unit of speech that, when contrasted with another phoneme, affects the naming of words in a language, such as /b/ in book contrasts with /r/ in rook, /l/ in look. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound that change the meanings of spoken words. For example, if you change the first phoneme in cat from /c/ to /f/, the word bat changes to fat. The English language has about 41-44 phonemes. A few words, such as a or oh, have only one phoneme. Most words have more than one phoneme. The word if has two phonemes /i/ and /f/.
teaching reading and spelling that stresses basic symbol-sound relationships and their application in decoding words in beginning instruction.
a succession of letters representing the same phonological unit in different words, such as ed in red, bed, fed. or, IGHT in FLIGHT, MIGHT and TIGHT.
Piaget, Jean
a Swiss biologist and psychologist constructed a model of child development and learning based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures or mental maps, “schemes,” or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within their environment. The child's cognitive structure advances in sophistication with development and grows from a few innate reflexes such as crying to highly complex mental activities.
Portfolio Assessment
provides a body of student work--essentially, a portfolio--that can be used to evaluate student performance over time.
the initial creative stage of writing, prior to drafting, in which the writer formulates ideas, gathers information, organizes or plans.
Reading Workshops
designed to encourage students to read self-selected books independently or in small groups. Afterwards, students are expected to respond to the books by writing in their reading logs and discussing the book in small groups to other students who are also reading the same book. This approach helps students to become fluent readers and to deepen their appreciation of books and reading.
Reflective Teaching involves the ability to:
research & explore, question & analyze, and make changes to both lessons and curriculum based on learning results experienced in the classroom.
the part of a syllable (not a word) consisting of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come after it, the first vowel in a word along with all of the sounds that follow, for example, /-utterfly/ in “butterfly.”
Round-robin Reading
an outdated reading strategy that attempts to teach students to read by having them follow other students in reading specific passages of text identified by the teacher. This technique is not recommended because it hampers reading fluency, its boring, and it causes students to lose interest in the story.
a set of scoring guidelines for assessing student work including a summary listing of the characteristics that distinguish high quality work from low quality assignments.
is a metaphoric term used by Vygotsky to show how parents and teachers provide temporary assistance to children/students by modeling appropriate behavior or skills. In the classroom, teachers model or demonstrate specific strategies and gradually shift the responsibility to the student to demonstrate.
a data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory. There are three types of schemata’s, content, language, and textual. 1.) Content Schemata - includes systems of factual knowledge, values, and cultural conventions. 2.) Language Schemata - includes sentence structure, grammatical inflections, spelling, punctuation, vocabulary, and cohesive structures. 3.)Textual Schemata - includes the rhetorical structure of different modes of text, (i.e., recipes, fairy tales, research papers, and science textbooks).
the study of the meaning in language and the analysis of the meanings of words, phrases, sentences.
Shared Reading
an activity in where the teacher and students sit together around a Big Book so that all can see the print and pictures. Individual students are selected to point to print and the other students join in and reading at their own level of expertise. Sometimes, the teacher reads a passage while pointing to the words to help young readers learn to read.
Sight Word
a word that is easily recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification or pronunciation
Situated Learning
coined by Lave. Basically, situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition that is manifested as a function of the specific activity, context or culture in which it occurs. This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge that's usually abstract and out of context. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration within an authentic context, i.e., settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge.
Student Centered Classroom
It’s believed that the teacher can best serve a student individually in a student-centered classroom, rather than in a teacher-centered classroom. In this setting, teachers function as colleagues rather than leaders. If we consider that learning is enhanced when students are engaged in the processing of information, then our challenge as teachers is to find creative ways to design dynamic learning environments that involve students in doing and thinking about specific subjects.
Summative evaluation
evaluation that comes at the conclusion of an educational program or instructional sequence.
the division of words into syllables [the minimal units of sequential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or a vowel-consonant combination, as /a/, /ba/, /ab/, /bab/, etc.]
Syntactic System
the structural (grammar) organization of English that regulates how words are combined into sentences. Word order is important in English and during the pre-school years, children learn to understand, ask questions, construct statements, and many of the capitalization and punctuation rules that elementary students learn reflect the syntactic system of language. This applies to simple, compound, and complex sentences.
Teacher Centered-Classroom
points out that students are passive recipients of the teachers knowledge, and later expected to regurgitate what they have learned on meaningless tests. Students learn social skills during class meetings and how to listen and respect differences. They also learn to brainstorm for solutions that are helpful (not punitive). Since they are involved in the process, they are more willing to follow rules they have helped create. Not only can teachers eliminate most discipline problems, but they can help children learn self-discipline, responsibility, cooperation, and problem-solving skills. (Tompkins, 2002)
Trade Books
written specifically for children, but they are not textbooks. Trade books are storybooks, books of poetry, picture books, etc. and used to teach language arts.
Transmission Learning
the process by which information, knowledge, ideas and skills are gained from instruction, guidance, and demonstration. However, it has been determined that this approach is not very effective and it only accounts for about 10% of actual learning
Vygotsky, Levis
credited with developing the Social Cultural learning model. Vygotsky pointed out that culture is the prime determinant of individual development and humans are the only species to have created culture that helps children develop in the context of its culture. Language is an important process in the learning scheme.
Watson, John B.
convinced psychologists that the real explanation of behavior was found in the nervous system, and that the study of the brain would explain the concept of conditioning as it related to behavior change.
Whole Language
an approach to reading instruction focusing on reading for meaning and the integration of the four aspects of language reading, writing, listening, and speaking.
Whole Word Method
the use of flash cards or word lists before students start reading a story or unfamiliar words to be encountered in the context of sentences.
Within-word Spelling
common to seven to nine-year olds. This approach shows that students understanding of the alphabetic principle is further refined in this stage as they learn how to spell long-vowel patterns and r-controlled vowels. Examples of within-word spelling include LIEV (live), SOPE (soap), HUOSE (house), and BERN (burn). Students experiment with long-vowel patterns and learn that words such as come and bread are exceptions that do not fit the vowel patterns. Sometimes, students tend to confuse spelling patterns and spell meet and METE, and they also tend to reverse the order of letters, such as FORM for from and GRIL for girl.
Word wall
A tool to help young readers learn to recognize and read specific words. Words are listed alphabetically on a chart by either students or teachers and displayed in the classroom for children to refer to while reading.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the gap between what individuals know and do not know about a specific topic. A child's ZPD is the gap or range of specific tasks they can perform with assistance from parents or teachers, but are unable to perform on their own. Children's ability to learn is facilitated via their interaction with adults; therefore, extensive meaningful conversations between adults and children is important to the learning process.
Shared reading
Teacher reads aloud while students follow along using individual copies of a book, a class chart, or a big book.
Advantages of shared reading:
1. Students have access to books they could not read independantly. 2. Teachers model fluent reading. 3. Teachers model reading strategies. 4. A community o readers is developed.
Disadvantages of shared reading:
1. Multiple copies, a class chart, or big book version of the text is needed. 2. Text may not be appropriate for all students. 3. Some students may not be interested in the text.
Guided reading
Teacher supports students as they read texts at their reading levels. Students are grouped homogeneously.
Advantages of guided reading:
1. Teachers provide directions and scaffolding, 2. Students practice reading strategies. 3. Students read independantly. 4. Students practice the prediction cycle.
Disadvantages of guided reading:
1. Multiple copies of the text are needed. 2. Teachers control the reading experience. 3. Some students may not be interested in the text.
Independent reading
Students read a text independently and often choose the text themselves.
Advantages of independent reading:
1. Students develop responsibility and ownership. 2. Students self-select texts. 3. Readers have a more authentic experience.
Disadvantages of independent reading:
1. Students may need assistance to read the text. 2. Teachers have little involvement or control.
Buddy Reading
Two students read or reread a text together.
Advantages of buddy reading
1. Students are encouraged to collaborate. 2. Students reread familiar texts. 3. Students develop reading fluency. 4. Students talk about texts to deepen comprehension.
Disadvantages of buddy reading:
1. Involvement and control are limited for teachers. 2. One student may depend on the other to do the reading.
Reading aloud to students
Teacher or other fluent reader reads aloud to students.
Advantages of Reading aloud to students:
a. Students have access to books they could not read independently.

b. Teachers model fluent reading.

c. Teachers model reading strategies.

d. A community of readers is developed.

e. Only one copy of the text is required
Disadvantages of Reading aloud to students:
a. Students have no opportunity to read.

b. Text may not be appropriate for some students.

c. Some students may not be interested in the text
Pythagorean Theorem
a squared + b squared= c squared. The square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squared on the other two sides.
The distance around the outside of a shape. Add the lengths of the sides.
The size a surface takes up. Measured in square units.
Area of rectangle and parallelograms
Length X Height
Area of triange
1/2base x perpendicular height.
Area of circle
pi X radius squared.
Amount of space occupied by an object.
Volume of cubes and rectangular prisms
base X height X length
Volume of triangular prisms
1/2(base X height X length)