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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How do OCD rates compare between men and women?
OCD rates are equal for adult males and females
OCD onset - earlier for boys, girls, or about the same?
Earlier for boys
If someone is exposed to a traumatic event that is outside the range of normal experience, and his or her symptoms have lasted less than a month, what is the diagnosis?
Acute Stress Disorder
Beck's refers to his therapeutic approach as
collaborative empiricism
What is the primary emphasis of Beck's CBT?
Active client participation and collaboration
Sympoms of Alzheimer's and related types of dimentia are most consistently linked with low levels of _____ in regions of the brain that control bx and emotion.
When is a test considered "unfair"?
When it has a similar validity coefficient for members of 2 or more groups AND members of the groups have similar criterion performances, BUT members of one group consistently score lower on the predictor than members of the other group/s.
Piagetian term meaning the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation or object while ignoring all other aspects.
Acc to Piaget, when is centration most likely to happen?
During the preoperational stage.
Systematic desensitization, flooding, and implosive therapy are all based on _____.
Principles of classical conditioning
What is incremental validity?
The extent to which a test adds to the predictive validity already provided by other measures
A researcher would be interested in the selection ratio, base rate, and validity coefficient of a test when evaluating the test's _____.
incremental validity
Bern's self-perception theory
attitudes are inferred from behaviors
The use of functional brain imaging techniques to study ADHD has linked its symptoms to lower-than-normal levels of metabolic activity in the _____.
prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
One-session psychological debriefing after a trauma. Good idea?
Probably not, and it may even increase chances of PTSD
Who is generally identified as the first psychodynamic theorist to formally adapt and apply psychoanalytic principles to the understanding of the family?
Nathan Ackerman
Define absolute threshold
The lowest intensity of some stimulus that produces a response.
A neurotransmitter found in many parts of the nervous system. Among many other functions, it serves as an excitatory transmitter at the synaptic junctions between muscle fibers and motor neurons.
active span tasks
Tasks in which research participants are asked to remember materials while simultaneously working on some other task; such tasks are an effective means of measuring working memory’s capacity.
A serious disturbance in the organization of sensory information produced by lesions in certain cortical areas. An example is visual agnosia in which the patient can see but often does not recognize what it is that he sees.
Drugs that increase the availability of dopamine norepinephrine, causing increased arousal and excitement. Large doses may lead to frenetic hyperactivity and delusions.
An almond-shaped structure in the temporal lobe that plays a central role in emotion and in the evaluation of stimuli.
A disorder of language produced by lesions in certain areas of the cortex. A lesion in Broca’s area leads to nonfluent aphasia, one in Wernicke’s area to fluent aphasia.
A serious disturbance in the organization of voluntary action produced by lesions in certain cortical areas, often in the frontal lobes.
atypical antipsychotics
Drugs (such as Clozaril, Risperdal, and Zyprexa) that operate by blocking receptors for both dopamine and serotonin; these drugs seem to be effective in treating schizophrenic patients’ positive and negative symptoms.
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
thought disorders and hallucinations
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
apathy and emotional blunting
Broca’s area
A brain area in the frontal lobe crucial for language production.
Richard Stuart's operant interpersonal therapy combines aspects of what two interventions?
1. operant conditioning
2. object relations theory
Implicit Memory
when the performance of a subject on a task is improved despite the inability of the subject to consciously recollect memories which facilitate to the task.
explicit memory
Those memories which a subject is able to cite as being a memory of a particular event.
What brain structure did Mishkin say was central to implicity memory?
basal ganglia
The core goal underlying Murray Bowen's model is _____?
differentiation of self, namely, the ability to remain oneself in the face of group influences, especially the intense influence of family life.
Bowen: When family members are highly _____, they are less likely to become _____ with other family members.
"Disengagement" is a term most likely used by which family systems therapist?
extrapyramidal side effects
Physical symptoms, including tremor, slurred speech, akathesia, dystonia, anxiety, distress, paranoia, and bradyphrenia, that are primarily associated with improper dosing of or unusual reactions to neuroleptic (anti-psychotic) medications.
Neuroleptic medications
Another name for antipsychotic medications
When would antipsychotics/neuroleptics be prescribed?
schizophrenia, mania and delusional disorder. Also some effects as mood stabilizers, leading to their frequent use in treating mood disorder (particularly bipolar disorder) even when no signs of psychosis are present.
What is an important advantage of the drug risperidone?
It doesn't usually produce extrapyramidal side effects like traditional antipsychotics
Kahneman and Tversky's notion of loss aversion
the tendency to weigh losses more heavily than gains, leads to decreased risk-taking
Driver's notion of "career concept" refers to an individual's career decisions. What are the 4 different types of career concepts?
1. steady state
2. linear
3. spiral
4. transitory
Holland's RIASEC Model has 6 person/environment or personality types to help determine an occupation/career. These are...
1. Realistic
2. Investigative
3. Artistic
4. Social
5. Enterprising
6. Conventional
Realistic occupations (acc to Holland)
Realistic occupations include mechanics, carpenters, surveyors, farmers, and other occupations requiring mechanical abilities.
Investigative occupations (acc to Holland)
scientific occupations such as chemists, physicists, biologists, anthropologists, and any requiring mathematical and scientific abilities.
Artistic occupations (acc to Holland)
musicians, writers, interior decorators, actors, and any requiring writing, musical, artistic or creative abilities.
Social occupations (acc to Holland)
counselors, psychologists, social workers, teachers, clergy, speech therapists, and any requiring social and interpersonal abilities.
Enterprising occupations (acc to Holland)
salespeople, politicians, buyer, sports caster, television reporter, and any requiring leadership and speaking abilities.
Conventional occupations (acc to Holland)
accountants, bankers, analysts, bookkeepers, exec assistants, industrial engineer and any req clerical and arithmetic abilities.
Children of depressed mothers are at higher risk for
emotional and behavioral problems
What signs are present in children of depressed mothers by the age of 3 months
elevated heart rate, greater risk of right frontal lobe EEG asymmetry
In the Strange Situation, securely attached children show what pattern of brain activity when the caregaver leaves? When caregiver returns?
Cortisol levels increase when caregive leaves, increases when caregiver returns
In the Strange Situation, insecurely attached children show what pattern of brain activity when the caregaver leaves? When caregiver returns?
Cortisol levels remain level the whole time
a stress hormone released by the adrenal gland
Differential reinforcement
Reducing undesirable self-reinforcing bx by providing a R+ after each predefined interval of time that the indiv doesn't engage in that bx, but instead engages in other bxs.
Solomon four-group design combines what two types of design?
pre-test/post-test control group design AND post-test only control group design
Purpose of the Solomon four-group design
To evaluate the effects of pretesting on a study's internal and external validity.
What is Cleary's "regression model of test bias"?
If a test has the same regression line for members of both groups, the test is not biased even if it has different means for the groups.
If you have the mean, SD, and standard error of measurement for a test, how do you detemine the 95% confidence interval when presented with a person's score?
Multiply the standard error by 1.96 (or just estimate using 2) then add and substract this number to the person's score.
Acc to Berscheid, when is a partner most likely to experience a high degree of emotion in an intimate rship?
When his partner's bx disrupts an organized sequence of bx (established bx patterns).
When are highly emotional responses most likely in an rship (acc ro Berscheid)?
In the early stages of a rship
When is crowding the most stressful, acc to Worchel and Brown?
When the situation is unarousing or uninteresting. So if you're bored, you hate crowds more.
What does a very high score on the MMPI-2 F scale mean?
Carelessness in responding or a deliberate attempt to "fake bad"
Who qualifies expert witnesses?
The court
Can an expert witness draw conclusions from data they did not gather themselves?
When it comes to child abuse, society is more concerned with which of the following: protecting the innocent and vulnerable OR preserving confidentiality.
protecting the innocent and vulnerable
the consistency of a set of measurements or measuring instrument
the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure, the degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate.
Predictive validity
the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure
Construct Validity
whether a scale measures the unobservable social construct (such as "fluid intelligence") that it purports to measure.
Concurrent Validity
The extent to which a test correlates well with a measure that has previously been validated.
Content Validity
(also known as logical validity) refers to the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given social concept. For example, a depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimension of depression but fails to take into account the behavioral dimension.
Systematic method for collecting information needed to develop a job description, personnel specification, and appopriate criterion (job performance) measures.
Job analysis
Job analysis
A systematic method for collecting information needed to develop a job description, personnel specification, and appopriate criterion measures.
Criterion-related validity
how well one variable or set of variables predicts an outcome based on information from other variables