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185 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Humans typically hear in what frequency range?
20 to 20,000 Hz
What term describes the transformation of a material from the solid state to a gaseous state?
Sublimation
WBGT combines the effects of which of the following?

Humidity
Temp
Air Velocity
Radiant Heat
All of the above
All of the above
A HEPA filter's effectiveness is ?
99.97% for particles 0.3µm
Breakthrough volume of solid sorbents tends to be/have _____ for higher sampling flow rates.
Lower
A neutron emitting a beta particle becomes a?
proton
Metabolism makes a particle more __ soluble so that it can be more readily excreted.
water
A study identifies workers exposures and follows them over time to look for the development of disease.
prospective
Exposure to what chemical is associated with a "fatty liver"?
carbon tetrachloride
What type of GC detector would you typically use for sulfur containing compounds?
flame ionziation detector.
Exposure to n-hexane is associated with?
peripheral nerve destruction
Exposure to thallium is associated with ?
hair loss
Exposure to ethylene glycol is associated with ?
reproductive hazards
What type of sheilding should be used for beta particles?
plexiglass
What type of analytical technique would best suit compounds with high boiling points?
HPLC
which analytical method of analysis is most commonly used for detection of inorganic acids?
ion chromatography
If a substance A has a steeper dose/response curve than substance B, what does it mean?
Substance B has a greater margin of safety than substance A.
The max collection efficiency for ESP is approximately?
Max collection efficinecy for an ESP theoretically approaches 100%. Efficienty may be affected by factors ie humidity. Faced with questions, choose the highest percentage.
What is the smallest size particle that can be seen with the unaided eye?
50 microns -100
What is the major hazard generally associated with roof bolting?
vibration
benign pneumoconoisis prevalent among welders is called?
Siderosis
What magnification is specified in PCM methods for counting asbestos fibers?
400x
When an analyst is counting airborne asbestos dust samples using PCM, approx what percentage of a 25mm filter disk will be examined?
0.2%
What is the minimum size of asbestos fiber counted for PCM methods (OSHA and NIOSH)
5 microns long
While counting an asbestos sample, what function does the eyepiece graticule serve?
defines counting area
What is the most commonly used type of asbestos in the US?
Chysotile
What analytical method is recommended for eval of air sample collected to assure proper cleanup after an asbestos abatement project?
Transmission Electron Microscropy (TEM)
Name it?

1. Form of atomic emission spectroscopy
2. Is useful because several different elements may be quantitated in an analytical run.
3. Frequently uses arong plasma at high temps (6000-8000K) to atmoize and excite elmental analytes.
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrophotmetry
Name 4 important factors in the separation of mixtures of compounds by column chromatography.
polarity of the stationary phase
polarity of the mobile phase
length of the column
the size of the particles comprising the stationary phase.
On a dose-response curve the threshold level is generally defined to be?
the intercept with the abscissa
What is the most common characteristics of compounds that are absorbed through the skin?
lipid soluble and non-ionized
Respirable dusts can be cleared from the lung by the following?
macrophages
Asbestos is characterized by ? and diagnosed by?
diffuse pulmonary fibrosis

diagnosed by X-ray exam
Analysis of metal in urine of blood is recommended for all but which of the following?

cadmium
hex chrome
beryllium
inorganic mercury
lead
berylliun
Eq:

Prevalence rate exposed / Prevalence rate unexposed
relative risk
Equation:

Prevalence exp – Prev unex = ?
Attrributable risk
The primary source of SO2 (sulfur dioxide) is:
Electric power generation
A degreasing system in which the solvent is heated via steam or electricity would typically be present in:
Vapor Phase Degreasing.

The solvent is heated to its boiling point and the vapor rises to fill the tank. A condenser in the tank limits the rise of the vapor and returns the solvent to liquid form for a complete cycle.
What detector is often used in a combustible gas indicator to determine the oxygen percent?
Amperometric cells are often used to determine oxygen content.
Pruritis is a condition describing?
Itching of the skin due to irritant exposure
Effective temperature is a combination of:
Dry bulb, humidity, and air movement
The Deming Wheel circuit consists of the following components in the following order:
Plan, Do, Check, Act
What produces mycotoxins?
fungi
Which animal is a vector for leptospirosis?
rabbit or cow
People are complaining of headaches and feeling tired while at work, but the symptoms leave shortly after leaving work.The building was renovated in the spring, but the symptoms didn’t start appearing until October.Which of the pollutants below is the most likely culprit?
CO
What is an acceptable range of pH for a direct discharge of waste water to a water way?
6-9
How do you calculate the sustained heart rate?
180 bpm - age
What is the recovery heart rate (after 1 minute)
>120 bpm
What core body temperature is a criteria for heat stress?
>101.3F
What safety level is appropriate for a biological research lab studying legionella bacteria?
BSL 2.
What is a BSL 1 type of organism?
defined, well characterized organisms.

no known or minimal potential hazards
Examples of BSL 1 work:
bacillius subtilis, naegleria gruberi, canine hepatitis virus.
what BSL is appropriate for virus potentially capable of fatal infection that is transmitted only through direct contact with host?
BSL 2
BSL 3
What produces mycotoxins?
fungi
Which animal is a vector for leptospirosis?
rabbit
cow
What level of protection would be required when responding to a spill of
contaminant that is a mild airborne inhalation irritant?
Level C
What is the Brief and Scala model for calculating a 12 hour day?
What is the Brief and Scala model for calculating a 60 work week ?
What is the reference sound pressure ?
20 micropascals or
20*10^-6 PA
What is the reference sound intensity ?
10^-12 W/m2
What is Q for a spherical ?
Q = 1
What is Q for a Hemisphere ?
Q = 2
What is Q for a Quadrant?
Q = 4
What is Q for a Octant (room corner)?
Q = 8
Upper and lower edge frequency?
f2 = 2f1

f2 = upper band-edge frequency
f1= lower band-edge frequency
Upper, lower and center frequencies?
f2 = √2 f1

f2= center or upper frequency
f1=lower of center frequency
Octave band- center frequency
fc = √f1 f2
Static pressure is the difference between ?
absolute pressure inside the duct and the atmpospheric pressure outside the duct.
Static pressure is always positive on the ?
discharge (downstream) side of the fan.
Employees at a battery manufacturing facility are likely to be exposed to which contaminant?
acid mist
Which exposure is likely for a welding inspector?
ionizing radiation
Which exposure is likely to result from operating a muller?
silica
Which exposures (3) are likely to result from electroplating operations?
Metal acid mists (foam layer to minimize)

Cyanide salt solutions: cadmium, copper, siliver brass, zine bronze

Acidic baths: chromium copper, nickel, tin.
Which welding materials are most likely to produce metal fume fever?
zinc and copper
Which welding operation produces the lowest concentration of metal fumes?
submerged arc welding
What exposures are likely to result from drop hammer forging operations ?
heat stress

lubricants - used to prevent metal from sticking to dye, aerosols vocs and solids

Noise- from impact of drop hammer forge
What chemical exposure combined with ethanol may lead to degreaser’s flush?
TCE
What exposure is most likely to result from abrasive blasting operations?
silica
What exposure is detected with a blood sample taken within minutes of the exposure?
CO
Which point on the dose-response curve of a substance is likely to be chosen as a TLV?
NOAEL
What is the source of a wide variety of chemical exposures for foundry molds?
resins.

VOCs
HCN- hydrogen cyanide
NH3 - ammonia
What is the primary operation at a foundry ?
pouring of molten metal into a mold of refactory sand and binder.
die placed on anvil and top half attached to vertical ram with several blows?
drop hammer forging
metal formed by mechanical or hydraluic ram in one slow, single stroke.
press forging
Molding binders
formaldehyde
MDI
TDI
furfuryl alcohol
phenol
furan
molding terms

flask

cope

drag
the frame holding the mold
Molding terms

muller
machine that mixes the sand with the binders (high potential for exposures)
What are the primary exposures to metal machining?
mineral oil, cutting oil, petroleum oil.

emulsified oil: microbial contaminantion

aerosolization during cutting (0.1 to 1.0 micron )
What are the primary health effects of metal machining?
skin, lung a larynx cancer
brochitis and asthma
dermatitis
What is pickling
dipping metals into acids.
What acids are used in pickling?
sulfuric acid, HCL, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, HF
What are the health effects related to pickling?
corrosive - burns, uclers, necrosis

cancer - laryngeal (steel pickling)
Alkaline treatments

what alkalines are used?
sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium meta or othosilica, borax,
Alkaline treatmens

electrolytic cleaning - what is released ?

what can you use to minimize the bubbles?
alkaline salt bath
part of the bath is cathod
hydrogen gas bubbles released.

Use foam blank to minimize rlease of caustic mists.
High pressure air forces abrasive particles against a surface (usually metal)?

what is the primary exposure?
Abrasive blasting.

silicia sand - silicosis
metal degreasing is what?
removal of grease and oils from metal parts.
Solvents used in metal degreaser?
methylene chloride
percholorethylene - vapor only
Trichloroethylene (TCE)
1, 1, 1, trichloroethane (phased out)
Trichlorofluroethane (phased out)
What is the definition of a confined space?
limited means of entry & exit
not designed for continous human occupancy
large enough for employee to enter and perform work?
potential hazards of a confined space?
engulfment, entrapment, mechanical, atmospheric
What effect does humidity and water vapor have on a PID?
can cause lamp fogging which will deflect, scatter and absorb UV light.
classic sx of mercury poisoning?
mental changes
tremor
stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous lining in the mouth, checks, tongue, etc)
how does radiant heat transfer relate to velocity?
independent of each other.
scientific basis for using extremely large dose levels in animal studies relative to dose levels in human exposure is primarily?
Statistical.

to obtain statistically valid results from such small groups of anmials, relatively large doses must be used to ensure effects will occur frequently enough.
what is the measurement of sound pitch?
MEL.

pitch, measured in MEL, is that attribute of auditory sensation by which sounds may be ordered on a scaled extending from low to high.

MEL = melody
what particle size range has the greatest retention time in the lung?
1-5 microns

particles <1 micron tend to stay in the airstream and are breathed back out.
IR causes the greatest damage to the ?
Retina
UV causes the greatest affects to the ?
Cornea
An Anderson-type single stage impactor for viable bioaerosol air samples should be calibrated at what flow rate?
28.3 lpm

high volume air pump.
The SI unit of activity is the?
Becquerel
1 becquerel = 1 disintegration/sec
A chemical agent that does not cause cancer on its own but when metabolized dose cause cancer is called?
Procarcinogen - must be metabolized to the direct acting carcinogen.
What HR management technique shows that if you paid attention to workers, showed concern, they ill repond with increased productivity.
Hawthorne
What radionuclide in soil is a major contributor to genetically significant radiation exposures?
Potassium 40
What is the primary difficulty in identifying antimony intoxication?
antimony is often found in conjunction with arsenic. Sx of arsenic intoxication are similar to those of antimony.
A flanged circular opening is used as an exhaust hood. How far from this opening should the hood static pressure be measured?
for flanged opening: 3 duct diameters.

Hood static pressure should be measured at a poitn which is far enough from teh hood face so that the flow field is stablized, but close enough so that the frictional loss does not occur.
What type of air cleaners are inefficient at collecting small particles?
cyclone
gravity settling chamber
permit space entry procedures are reviewed?
if the use of the space changes,
In temperate N America, the most frequently found genus of fungi in outdoor air ?
Cladosporium.

common cause of asthma and hay fever in W. hemisphere
aspergillus is commonly found where?
soil, compost piles, plant debris,water damaged building materials.
first responder awareness level training includes?
Ability to recognize the presence of hazardous materials in an emergency.

irst responder awareness training is the most basic of the hazwoper training.
Define non-ionizing radiation
EM radiation less than 10 keV.

The non-ionizing portion of the spectrum begins at 10 keV and below. This roughly corresponds to the area of soft xx-rays and high energy UV light.
which of the following is NOT classified as an obstructive type of lung impairment?

asthma
asbestosis
chronic bronchitis
emphysema
Asbestosis: produces a diffuse interstitial fibrosis.

Asthma, chronic brochitis, and emphysema all produce restirictions in brochioles.
The aliphatic hydrocarbons, _ and _ are present in natural gas and act as simple asphyxiants.
methane
ethane

Simple asphyxiants do not exert specific toxic effects, but cause death by exclusion of oxygen.
What affect would milling have on asbestos fiber?
reduce diamter and shorten length.

milling will tend to break up the fibers, resulting in both shorter and narrower fibers
how do particles larger than 100 microns behave in air?
particles larger than 100 microns travel some distance if ejected at high speed but settle out quickly.
what is an electrogoniometer?
An electrical potentiometer that can be used to measure joint angle.

This device measures joint angle and number of repetitions.
purpose of an evase discharge on an exhuast stack?
decrease the stack exit velocity and regain some of the exhaust velocity pressure.

reduced total amount of static pressure required by the system.
critical organ for radioactive nobel gases?
radioactive nobel gases are alpha emitters and are internal hazards only.

Lung is the only tissue to significant come in contact with the gases
Where is the cochlea found?
inner ear along with the Organ of Corti
Radiant heat, a form of electromagnetic energy does not ?
heat the air as it passes through it. It is best controlled by sheilding.
When the wrist is bent towards the thumb side of the hand it is known as ?
Radial deviation.

ulnar devation is a bend toward the little finger.
TLVs are based on ?

3()
best available information from ?

industrial experience
human studies
animal studies
TLV- STEL is the concentration workers can be exposed continuously for a short peroid of time without suffering from the following except?

dermatitis
irritation
chronic or irreverisble tissue damage
narcosis
dermatitis is not a factor in definition of the TLV>
Watts = _ joules/second?
watts = joules/second
nano = ?
1*10-9
what detector is most commonly used for GC analysis of carbon containing compounds?
FID.
2 types of condenser microphones are commonly available. One is the air-dielectric condenser mic, the other is?
Electret
Methanol and most amines are collected much better on ?
silica gel.

silica gel tubes collect polar materials much better.
What type of asbestos is considered teh worst from an occupation health perspective?
Crocidolite.

associated with mesothelioma.
Eczema is a common skin condition, on of the heavy metals, thought to be responsible for up to 5% of eczema cases and potential sensitizer is?
nickel
solid barriers with absorbing material tend to abate?
high frequency noise.

low frequency noise is hard to stop with a barrier.
The maximum rate at which a worker can lose heat by evaporation is a function of all of the following?
water vapor pressure in the vicinity of the worker.

air velocity in the vicity

level of worker acclimitization,

Not the radiant temperature !
What frequencies of the EM spectrum include non-ionizinig radiation?
0.03 and 3*10^9 MHZ.
what personal radiation monitor provides the most sensitive radiation reading?
thermoluminescent dosimeter
TLV for exposure to radiation from a microwave oven is?
8 mW/cm2
Excursion limit

may exceed _ x the TWA, for no more than a total of _ minutes.
may exceed 3x the TWA, for no more than a total of 30 minutes.

no circumstance should it exceed 5x the TWA.
Excursion limit, under no circumstance should it exceed _x the TWA.
no circumstance should it exceed 5x the TWA.
STELs are the concentration which employees can be exposed for short period of time without suffering? (4)
1. irritation
2. chronic or irreversible tissue damage
3. doe-rate dependent toxic effects.
4 narcosis of of sufficient degree
how would you calculate max concentration?
( vapor pressure of agent / 760mmHg ) * 10^6
The primary red blood cell (erythrocyte, RBC) producing organ is the _____________.
bone marrow
Arsine gas is notorious for its ability to cause massive destruction of the ___________ at very low air concentrations.
RBC.

Arsine is a very effective hemolytic agent. It is capable of causing massive red blood cell hemolysis. The IDLH for arsine gas is 6 PPM. The odor threshold is thought to be about 1-2 PPM. TLV is 0.05 PPM.
Benzene is metabolized by the body to form which metabolite?

best method for biological monitoring?
phenol.

Total urinary phenols is the method of choice for benzene exposure biological monitoring.
The residual volume of the lung is:
Amount of air remaining after maximum expiration
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis and chronic silicosis usually take how long to show up on an x-ray?
10-12 years
Cytochrome P-450 enzymes are located primarily in the ________________ of the cell.
Endoplasmic reticulum
The most potentially dangerous formulation of a pesticide is:
aeorsol.

The most potentially dangerous route of entry is the respiratory tract. In real work situations, however, most significant exposures occur through skin contact.
Which of the following is not a chemical asphyxiant?

A) Aniline
B) Sodium nitrite
C) Hydrogen cyanide
D) Argon
Argon is a simple asphyxiant. The other chemicals are all chemical asphyxiants.
Some irritants have very low or very high pH's. Which are tolerated better by the skin, high pH irritants or low pH irritants?

A) High (basic solution)
B) Low (acidic solution)
C) Both are tolerated equally well
D) High when pressure is high
Low pH

Acidic solutions are generally tolerated better than basic solutions. This means that low pH irritants are generally tolerated better than high pH basic irritants. pH over 11 presents a significant risk to the skin.
Following chronic low-dose exposure to certain heavy metals, accumulation of metals in which of the following organelles has been demonstrated and implicated as a protective mechanism ?
Lysosomes appear to play an active role in protection against renal damage following heavy metal exposure by several mechanisms, including endocytosis of metal-protein complexes; autophagy of intoxicated organelles; and binding of the metal to lipoproteins within the lysosome.
Toxicants bound to plasma proteins are:
Unavailable for distribution to extravascular space.

Acidic, basic and neutral compounds are bound reversibly to various plasma proteins. Because of the high molecular weight of the complex, it cannot pass through pores in cell membranes and hence, is generally confined to the vascular space
An inflammatory disorder transmitted by a tick, resulting in skin lesions and possible cardiac, neurologic, and joint abnormalities is
Lyme disease is spread through the blood or lymph system, and disseminated to organs and skin sites. The primary lesion is hot to the touch, and will develop into multiple lesions. Commmon symptoms are headache, fever, malaise and stiff neck. Symptoms may be intermittent, but malaise and fatigue can linger. Arthritis occurs in half those affected.
Rocky moutain spotted fever is developed by?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease brought on by a type of bacteria carried by ticks
Elemental mercury is absorbed _________ well when ingested
Not very well.

Elemental mercury is very poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. It is estimated that less than 0.01 percent of the elemental mercury in the gastrointestinal tract is absorbed.
How does exposure to chlorofluorocarbons affect the heart?
Chlorofluorocarbons have been associated with the production of cardiac arrhythmias. The chlorofluorocarbons are thought to sensitize the heart to epinephrine. When epinephrine is released in quantity, cardiac arrhythmias may result.
What occupationals are associated with Furrier's disease?
Furrier's disease is seen in occupations involving work with animal furs.
Both the liver and kidney have the ability to compensate for chemical injury due to their
Regenerative capacity is outstanding. Within a short time after removal of one kidney (or partial hepatectomy), the remaining organ or tissue hypertrophies (the opposite of atrophy) so that it grows to such an extent that standard clinical tests show no loss of function
Which of the following is not a heavy metal toxin?

A) Beryllium
B) Mercury
C) Silver
D) Bismuth
Heavy metals are commonly defined as those with atomic weights >70 or densities >5. Beryllium is neither of these.
The human airways have approximately __________ generations.
Each division or level of bifurcation of the lung in the tracheobronchiolar region is referred to as a generation. Rodent lungs are somewhat similar to mans in this area except that they have fewer generations. Human airways have 23 bifurcations
In temperate North American climates, the most frequently found genus of fungi in outdoor air is
Cladosporium
Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides act by?
CNS interference
The organophosphorus insecticides inhibit ____.
cholinesterase
The most toxic nickel compound is a gas. At one time this gas was thought to be the cause of the outbreak of Legionnaires disease in Philadelphia. This gas can be lethal to humans @ 30ppm for 20 min. It is
Nickel carbonyl is an extremely toxic gas that is formed from nickel and carbon monoxide.
Cadmium found in water is usually derived from:
Metal plating, industrial waste, and mining waste are the sources of cadmium found in water.
Lead damate to the hematopoietic system is throught to arise from what 3 effects?
inhibition of heme synthesis, shortened RBC life, and stimulation of the erythropoietic system i.e. the blood production system
The target organ for uranium toxicity is?
kidneys
Impaction is a mechanism for collection of aerosols by ?
inertial deposition.
Sedimentation is a mechanism of aerosol collection by utilizing the ?
the gravitational settling properties of particles.
E. Coli 0157:H7 has been most commonly linked to the consumption of undercooked?
E. Coli 0157:H7 has been most commonly linked to the consumption of undercooked ground beef. Other implicated foods include roast beef, raw milk, and apple cider.
Chromium +6 is adept at moving across cell membranes and entering the cell. Inside the cell Cr+6 is reduced to Cr+_ .
Hexavalent chromium is reduced inside the cell to trivalent chromium (Cr+3). If this reduction takes place in proximity to the DNA, mutations are possible.
The primary manifestation of neurotoxicity associated with childhood lead poisoning is _________________.
Peripheral neuropathy.

Lead also has a direct effect on neuronal and possibly synaptic transmission at levels that do not produce overt signs of intoxication. These effects are termed low level lead toxicity or subclinical lead toxicity and include hyperactivity, decreased attention span, and small decrements in IQ.
In arc welding the source of the fluorides is the: ?
The source of fluorides in arc welding is the electrodes used by the welder. The fluorides are added to the coating of the electrode or are inside the electrode (flux-cored electrodes).
The responsibilities of authorized entrants (for confied safety) (29 CFR 1910.146) include the following except
Monitor conditions in and around the permit space
Active transport is particularly important, toxicologically, for the process of _______________.
Excretion

Active transport systems are very important for elimination of foreign compounds from the body. The cerebrospinal fluid, kidney, and liver have at least 2, 2, and 4 active transport systems, respectively
Coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) refer to a group of many compounds. CTPV's have been associated with lung cancer and:
CPTV's have been shown to cause phototoxic skin reactions to sunlight after only short exposures. Allergic dermatitis has been demonstrated in animals and acne/folliculitis has been seen in workers without adequate personal hygiene habits.
Carbon disulfide has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT:

A) Atherosclerosis
B) Peripheral neuropathy
C) Psychosis
D) Chemical pneumonitis
Chemical pneumonitis

Elevated cholesterol levels and early atherosclerosis have been described in chronically exposed workers. Acute overexposure to high concentrations can result in severe toxic encephalopathy and with lower concentrations over longer periods, peripheral neuropathy. Optic neuritis has often been reported, as well as psychosis. Chemical pneumonitis has not been reported in conjunction with carbon disulfide exposure.
What are the effects associated with exposure to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)?
MEK is a pungent solvent with a high vapor pressure. It causes narcosis and is also capable of defatting the skin resulting in cracking and eventually dermatitis