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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Select the correct statement about serial processing.
A. Input travels along several different pathways
B. Smells are processed by serial pathways
C. Spinal reflexes are an example of serial pathways
D. Memories are triggered by serial processes
Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing
A neural ciruit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over is a _____.
A. Converging circuit
B. Reverberating circuit
C. Repetitive circuit
D. Diverging Circuit
Reverberating circuit
Bipolar neurons are commonly _____.
A. motor neurons
B. found in the retina of the eye
C. found in ganglia
D. called neuroglial cells
found in the retina of the eye
The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the _____.
A. cell body
B. synapse
C. effector
D. receptor
Synapse
Schwann cells are funtionally similar to _____.
A. astrocytes
B. microglia
C. oligodendrocyes
D. ependymal cells
Oligodendrocytes
Direct-acting neurotransmitters _____.
A. open ion channels to provoke rapid responses
B. mediate very slow responses
C. require cyclic AMP
D. act through second messengers
open ion channels to provoke rapid responses
In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ____.
A. negatively charged and contains less sodium
B. negatively charged and contains more sodium
C. positively charged and contain less sodium
D. positively charged and contains more sodium
negatively charged and contains less sodium
Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) _______.
A. release nerve growth factor
B. are crucial for the development of neural connections
C. are crucial in the production of neurotransmitters
D. are found on "pathfinder" neurons
are crucial for the development of neural connections
Ependymal cells______.
A. are a type of neuron
B. helpto circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
C. are the most numerous of the neuroglia
D. are a type of macrophage
help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
The term central nervous system refers to the _____.
A. brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
B. spinal cord and spinal nerves
C. autonomic nervous system
D. brain and spinal cord
brain and spinal cord
Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters are ______.
A. microglia
B. oligodendrocytes
C. astrocytes
D. Schwann cells
astrocytes
The part of th neuron that normally receives stimuli is called _____.
A. a Schwann cell
B. an axon
C. a neurolemma
D. a dendrite
a dendrite
Ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid are called ______.
A. ependymal cells
B. Schwann Cells
C. astrocytes
D. oligodendrocytes
ependymal cells
A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until ______.
A. the Na ions have been pumped back into the cell
B. the membrane potential has been reestablished
C. proteins have ben resynthesized
D. all sodium gates are closed
the membrane potential has been reestablished
Which of the following is not a structural feature of a neuron?
A. Nissl bodies
B. Synaptic cleft
C. axon
D. Dendrites
Synaptic Cleft
The period after an intitial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the _____.
A. absolute refractory period
B. depolarization
C. resting period
D. repolarization
Absolute refractory
Which of the following is true about the movement of ions across excitable living membranes?
A. Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps.
B. The bulk of the solutions inside a cell are negatively charged.
C. Ions always move actively across membranes through leakage channels.
D. Sodium gates in the membrane can open in response to electrical potential changes
Some ions are prevented from moving down their concentration gradients by ATP-driven pumps
The sympathetic and parasympathetic are subdivisions of the _____.
A. central nervous system
B. autonomic nervous system
C. voluntary nervous system
D. somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
The sodium-potassium pump ______.
A. pumps two sodium ions inside the cell and three potassium ions outside
B. pumps two sodium ions outside the cell and three potassium ions inside
C. pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside
D. pumps three sodium ions inside the cell and two potassium ions outside
pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside
An action potential _______.
A. involves the influx of negative ions to depolarize the membrane
B. involves impulse propogation dependent on chemically gated ion channels
C. is initiated by potassium ion movement
D. is essential for impulse propagation
is essential for impulse propagation
The substance at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a ______.
A. ion
B. biogenic amine
C. neurotransmitter
D. cholinesterase
neurotransmitter
Select the correct statement about synapses.
A. The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
B. cells with interconnected cytoplasm are chemically coupled.
C. The release of neurotransmitter molecules gives cells the property of being electrically coupled.
D. Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the axons of cells
The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.
A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called an _____.
A. efferent neuron
B. glial cell
C. afferent neuron
D. association neuron
association neuron
An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle is ______.
A. acetylcholine
B. gamma aminobutyric acid
C. norepinephrine
D. cholinesterase
acetylcholine
The role of acetylcholinesterase is to _____.
A. stimulate the production of serotonin
B. act as a transmitting agent
C. destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings
D. amplify or enhance the effect of ACh
destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings
Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called _____.
A. nuclei
B. ganglia
C. nerves
D. tracts
ganglia
A neuronal circuit that concentrates or directs a large number of incoming impulses to a rather small number of neurons is called a _____.
A. oscillating circuit
B. parallel ciruit
C. converging circuit
D. diverging circuit
converging circuit
Th part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called an _____.
A. neurolemma
B. Schwann cell
C. axon
D. dendrite
Axon
Saltatory conduction is made possible by _____.
A. large nerve fibers
B. the myelin sheath
C. erratic transmission
D. diphasic impulses
the myelin sheath
_____ is an indolamine
A. Epinephrine
B. Dopamine
C. Serotonin
D. Tyrosine
Serotonin
Which of the following is not a function of th autonomic nervous system?
A. innervation of the skeletal muscle
B. innervation of smooth
C. innervation of glands
D. innervation of cardiac muscle
innervation of skeletal muscle
A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a _______
Node of Ranvier
The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than in adults is the _____.
Electrical Synapse
When information is delivered within the CNS simultaneously by different parts of the neural pathway, the process is called _____ processing.
Parallel
_____ is a disease that gradually destroys the myelin sheathes of neurons in the CNS, particularly in young adults.
Multiple Sclerosis
When one or more presynaptic neurons fire in rapid order it produces a much greater depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane than would result from a single EPSP; this event is called _____ summation.
Temporal
With musclular dystrophy _____.
A. most forms do not appear to be inherited
B. muscles decrease in size due to loss of fat and connective tissue
C. most cases appear in young females
d. muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?
A. epimysium
B. endomysium
C. perimysium
D. fascicle
endomysium
The term aponeurosis refers to _____.
A. the tropomyosin-troponin complex
B. the nands of myofibrils
C. the rough endoplasmic reticulum
D. a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element
Th contractile units of skeletal muscles are _____.
A. microtubules
B. mitochondria
C. myofibrils
D. T tubules
myofibrils
In an isotonic contraction, the muscle _____.
A. never converts pyruvate to lactate
B. does not change in length but increases tension
C. rapidly resynthesizes creatine phosphate and ATP
D. changes in length and moves the "load"
Changes in length and moves the "load"
What is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work?
A. the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
B. the direction the load is being moved
C. the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever
D. the weight of the load
the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcurm
What primarily determines the power of a muscle?
A. the shape
B. the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
C. the length
D. the number of neurons innervating it
The total number of muscle cells available for contraction
A muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called ____.
A. a synergist
B. an antagonist
C. an agonist
D. a fixator
an agonist
The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. When the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscles action, this means that _____.
A. the muscle functions as a synergist
B. the muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint
C. the muscle flexes and rotates a regions
D. the muscle elevates and adducts a region
the muscle elevates and adducts a region
The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. When the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscles's action, this means that _________.
A. the muscle functions as a synergist
B. the muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint
C. the muscle flexes and rotates a region
D. the muscle elevates and/or adducts a region
the muscle elevates and/or adducts a region
Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?
A. the type of muscle fiber
B. muscle shape
C. the type of action they cause
D. muscle location
the type of muscle fibers
In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ______.
A. biceps brachii acts as antagonist
B. coracobrachialis acts as antagonist
C. brachioradialis acts as antagonist
D. triceps brachii acts as antagonist
triceps brachii acts as antagonist
The inferiormost part of the sternum is the _______.
A. ala
B. xiphoid process
C. body
D. manubrium
Xiphoid process
The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called _____.
A. areolas
B. fontanels
C. foramina
D. sutures
fontanels
The axial skeleton contains _____.
A. the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
B. shoulder and pelvic girdles
C. arms, legs, hands, and feet
D. the skull, vertebral column, and pelvis
the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
The hyoid bone is unique because ______.
A. it has no specific function
B. it is the only bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone
C. it is covered with mucosa
D. it is shaped like a plow
it is the bone of the body that does not articulate with any other bone
All of the following facial bones are paired except one. which of the following is the unpaired facial bone?
A. palatine
B. vomer
C. lacrimal
D. maxillae
vomer
The major function of the axial sketon is to _____.
A. provide an attachment point for muscles that allow movement
B. provide a space for the major digestive organs
C. provide central support for the body and protective internal organs
D. gives body resilience
provide central support for the body and protect intrnal organs
An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a _______.
A. condyle
B. suture
C. synovial joint
D. cartilaginous joint
suture
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to _______.
A. produce red blood cells
B. attach tendons
C. provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
D. form the synovial membrane
provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
Connective tissues sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called _____.
A. tendons
B. menisci
C. ligaments
D. bursae
bursae
which of these joint types affords uniaxial movement?
A. ball and socket
B. hinge
C. pivot
D. gliding
hinge
______ are cartilaginous joints
A. synchondroses
B. Gomphoses
C. sutures
D. syndesmoses
synchondroses
Fibrous joints are classified as _____.
A. hing, saddle, and ellipsoidal
B. sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
C. pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
D. symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with _______.
A. tendon sheaths
B. fibrocartilage
C. hyaline cartilage
D. synovial membranes
hyaline cartilage
When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it is called _______.
A. abduction
B. inversion
C. adduction
D. dorsiflexion
abduction
Which muscle cells hav the greatest ability to regenerate?
A. skeletal
B. no muscle can regenerate
C. smooth
D. cardiac
smooth
Which of the following is not a usual result of resistance exercise?
A. increase in the efficiency of the circulatory system
B. increase in the number of myofibrils within the muscle cells
C. increase in the efficiency of the respiratory system
D. increase in the number of muscle cells
increase in the nunber of muscle cells
Myoglobin ______.
A. stores oxygen in muscle cells
B. is a protein involved in the direct phosphorylation of ADP
C. produces the end plate potential
D. breaks down glycogen
stores oxygen in muscle cells
An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATP's per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is ______.
A. gycolysis
B. the citric acid cycle
C. hydrolysis
D. the electron transport chain
glycolysis
Muscle tone is ______.
A. a feeling of well-being following exrcise
B. the ability of a muscle to efficiently cause skeletal movements
C. the condition of athletes after intensive training
D. a state of sustained partial contraction
a state of sustained partial contraction
A bone that contains diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone is the ______.
A. humerus
B. cervical vertebra
C. parietal bone
D. talus
humerus
Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle. T/F
True
A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric. T/F
True
One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is production of heat. T/F
True
Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to make creatine phosphate.
False
Single-unit smooth muscle is found in the intestines.
T/F
True
Smooth muscles relax when intracellular Ca2+ levels drop but may not cease contractions. T/F
True
All of the bones of the skull, except the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable. T/F
True
The foramen magnum goes through the occipital bone. T/F
True
Costal cartilages join most ribs to the sternum. T/F
True
There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebra. T/F
True
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints. T/F
True
A movement of the forearm in which th palm of the hand is truned from posterior to anterior is supination. T/F
True
Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract. T/F
False
The effect of a neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its ion permeability properties temporarily. T/F
True
A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint. T/F
True
Only _____ muscle cells are always multinucleated.
skeletal
Only _____muscle cells commonly branch.
Cardiac
A smooth, sustained contraction is called ______.
tetanus
The end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the ______.
Insertion
with muscular dystrophy ______.
A. most forms do not appear to be inherited
B. most cases appear in young females
C. muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
D. muscles decrease in size due to loss of fat and connective tissue
muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to _____.
A. the hands
B. the feet
C. the arms
D. the hands and feet
the feet
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis?
A. tendonitis
B. rheumatoid arthritis
C. bursitis
D. osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis
Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ______.
A. rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint
B. common due to the weight-bearing the hip endures
C. common in all people who are overweight
D. rare because of the ligament reinforcement
rare because of the ligament reinforcement
myoglobin ______.
A. Produces the end plate potential
B. stores oxygen in muscle cells
C. is a protein involved in the direct phosphorylation of ADP
D. breaks down glycogen
stores oxygen in muscle cells
Muscle tone is ______.
A. a state of sustained partial contraction
B. the ability of a muscle to efficiently cause skeletal skeletal movements
C. the feeling of well-being following exercise
D. the condition of athletes after intensive training
a state of sustained partial contraction
An elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the ______.
A. myofibrillar network
B. intermediate filament network
C. sarcoplasmic reticulum
D. mitochondria
sarcoplasmic reticulum
______ are cartilaginous joints
A. sutures
B. syndesmoses
C. synchondroses
D. gomphoses
synchondroses
An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a ______.
A. cartilaginous joint
B. suture
C. condyle
D. synovial joint
suture
Rigor mortis occurs because _____.
A. proteins are beginning to break down, thus preventing a flow of calcium ions
B. no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
C. sodium ions leak out of the muscle
D. the cells are dead
no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to _____.
A. produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)
B. provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
C. form the synovial membrane
D. attach tendons
Provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of _____.
A. hyperextention
B. flexion
C. extention
D. circumduction
hyperextension
The striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced, for the most part, by ______.
A. the arrangement of myofilaments
B. the T tubules
C. the sarcoplasmic reticulum
D. a difference in the thickness of the sarcolemma
the arrangement of myofilaments
Which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?
A. skeletal
B. cardiac
C. smooth
D. no muscle can regenerate
smooth
Menisci refer to ______.
A. tendon sheaths
B. cavities lined with cartilage
C. semilunar cartilage pads
D. small sacs containing synovial fluid
Semilunar cartilage pads
One functional unit of a skeletal muscle is ______.
A. a myofibril
B. the sarcoplasmic reticulum
C. a sarcomere
D. a myofilament
a sarcomere
During vigorous exercise, ther may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to _____.
A. a strong base
B. stearic acid
C. hydrochloric acid
D. lactic acid
Lactic acid
A sarcomere is _____.
A. the area between the two Z discs
B. the wavy lines on the cell seen in the microscope
C. the area between two intercalated discs
D. the nonfunctional unit of skeletal muscle
the area between two Z discs
In an isotonic contraction, the muscle ______.
A. rapidly resynthesizes creatine phosphate and ATP
B. does not change in length but increases tension
C. changes in lenth and moves the "load"
D. never converts pyruvate to lactate
changes in length and moves the "load"
The sliding filament model of contraction involves ____.
A. actin and myosin shortening but not sliding past each other.
B. the shortening of thick filaments so that thin filaments slide past
C. actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap
D. the Z discs sliding over the myofilaments
actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlap
Fibrous joints are classified as _____.
A. sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
B. symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
C. pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
D. hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
the main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to _______.
A. enhance the abilability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
B. convert glycogen to glucose
C. increase the myoglobin content
D. tone the muscles and stabilize the joints for the workout
enhance the abailability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
Which of these joint types affords uniaxial movement?
A. hinge
B. ball and socket
C. pivot
D. gliding
hinge
The hip joint is a good example of a _____ synovial joint.
A. multiaxial
B. nonaxial
C. biaxial
D. uniaxial
multiaxial
When a ballerina points the toes, it is known as _____.
A. protraction
B. circumduction
C. plantar flexion
D. pronation
plantar flexion
If a patient was suffering from busitis, this condition would be designated as inflammation of a _____.
A. sesamod bone found at a joint
B. articular cartilage
C. cavity within a long bone
D. small sac containing fluid
small sac containing fluid
Which of the following surrounds the individual muscle cell?
A. endomysium
B. perimysium
C. epimysium
D. fascicle
endomysium
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ____.
A. symphysis
B. syndesmoses
C. gomphosis
D. suture
symphysis
Which of the following is not a usual result of resistance exercise?
A. increase in efficiency of the respiratory system
B. increase in the number of muscle cells
C. increase in the number of myofibrils within the muscle cells
D. increase in the efficiency of the circulatory system
increase in the number of muscle cells
The major function fo the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to ____.
A. synthesize actin and myosin myofilaments
B. make and store phophocreatine
C. regulate intracellular calcium concentration
D. provide a source of myosin for the contraction process
regulate intracellular calcium concentration
The muscle cell membrane is called the _____.
A. perimysium
B. endomysium
C. epimysium
D. sarcolemma
sarcolemma
When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it is called ______.
A. inversion
B. abduction
C. dorsiflexion
D. adduction
abduction
Most muscles contain _____.
A. a mixture of fiber types
B. muscle fibers of the same type
C. a predominance of fast oxidative fibers
D. a predominance of slow oxidative fibers
a mixture of fiber types