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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Wherry definition of PR
-Do a good job
-Do a GOOD job
-Tell people about it
Perception in public relations world
Rex Harlow definition of PR
Helps establish mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation between an organization and its publics
-involves management of problems or issues
-helps keep informed on and responsive to public opinion
-defines and emphasizes the responsibility of management to serve the public interest
-helps management keep abreast of and effectively utilize change, serving as an early warning system
-uses research and ethical communication techniques as its principle tools
Cutlip, Center, and Broom definintion of PR
The management function that identifies, establishes, and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics
Long and Hazelton definition of PR
Maintain environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals
James E. Grunig definition of PR
Management of communication between an organization and its publics
Common themes in PR definitions (6)
-management function
-two way communication
-relationships, education, and reputation
-deliberate and planned
-ethical performance
-public interest
PR's role in society (5)
-keep organizations sensitive
-heighten public accountability for government and business
-provide important public dialogue
-help organizations succeed
-build trust
Entities in which PR functions (7)
-government and politics
-non-profit organizations
-entertainment, sports, and travel
-agency or consulting firm
-international organizations or agencies
(Genereally) Entry level PR functions/activities--tactical (6)
-media relations
-special events
-marketing communiation
-employee relations
-public/government affairs
(Generally) More experience, higher paying PR functions/activities--managerial (7)
-issues management
-financial relations
-industry relations
-development or fundraising
-intercultural relations
Differences between PR and journalism (4)
-journalists write, PR people have many tasks
-journalists report facts, PR is advocacy
-journalists must attribute info to some source, in EXACT words; senior PR people often write bosses' words
-journalists have mass audience, PR targets audiences, or publics
21st Century PR trends (8)
-demands for more transparency
-expanding PR roles/encroachment
-more emphasis on evaluation
-changing media; 24/7 demands
-life-long learning
-diversity slowly coming into field
-feminization of the practice
Line function
report to someone in organizational chain, subject to demands of that unit
Staff function
positioned to directly advice top management without the line restrictions--strategic PR is usually a staff function
Resolution of friction (4)
-senior person in these functions should all have equal status
-clearly delineatte responsibilities, in writing
-should serve together on problem solving team and other key committees to exchange expertese and ideas
-should have regular contact
PR Firms (3)
-Entities outsource PR work
-small entities use PR firms when they don't see enough day-to-day need
-larger entities use PR firms as supplemental "arms and legs" to carry out strategies
Some large PR firms (5)
-Weber Shandwick
-Edelman Worldwide
-Hill and Knowlton
Global explosion of PR--results of (2)
-fully owned firms, subsidiaries, affiliated networks like Worldcom, Pinnacle, and IPREX around the world
-growth of communication conglomerates (Omnicom, WPP, Interpublic Group)
Agency advantages (5)
-specialized skills/expertese
-network of offices (sometimes)
Agency disadvantages (5)
-lack of knowledge of client
-turnover/rapid delegation
-limited attention/other clients
-network has varying expertese
Early roots of PR (5)
-ancient Egypt
-Grecian Olympics
-Julius Caesar
-Alma 46 (title of liberty)
-Alma 51 (kingmen and Moroni)
US Beginnings of PR (5)
-Revolutionary War fostered by activists
-Boston Tea Party
-Declaration of Independence
-1800s: Press agents, hype, pseudoevents (P.T. Barnum "Sucker born every minute")
-Industrial Revolution, "journalists in residence" for oil, railroad, other industries
PR in 1900-1950 (7)
-Fostered by WWI
-George Creel, Creel Committee
-Henry Ford
-Theodore Vale, Arthur Page
-Teddy Roosevelt (brought press relations into White House)
-Ivy Ledbetter Lee, first PR counselor, importance of honest, accurate info
-Edward Bernays and Doris Fleishman, "engineering of consent, or scientific persuasion, valued the "big idea"
PR in 1950-2000 (4)
"Toward Maturity"
-Government increased after WWII
-PR understanding transferred to business
-urbanization, growth of media, impersonalized society fostered PR
-Departments became more specialized as society got more complex
PR Professional Associations (6)
-International Association of Business Communications (IABC)
-Specific practice associations
-International Public Relations Association
-Some 72 national associations
-Global Alliance of PR
Key skills to succeed in PR (6)
-strategic thinking (problem solving)
-information gathering--ability to gain understanding (inquisitiveness)
-counseling--speaking your mind AND listening
-business (organizational) acumen
-Cross-cultural understanding, sensitivity
PR Process: RACE
A-action, doing something
C-communication, telling about it
E-evaluation, impact of program
Cutlip, Center & Broom Four-Step PR Process
1-Define problem
2-Plan and program
3-Act and cocmmunicate
Expect management positions if...
you show them "stuff," research, appeal to their "bottom line" mentality
Situation Analysis (6)
-What is the problem?
-Where is this a problem?
-When is it a problem?
-Who is involved or affected?
-How are they involved or affected?
-Why is this a concern to the organization and its publics (what is the ultimate consequence--worst case scenario)
Secondary Research
Research that others have already done that is relevant to your situation
Primary Research
Research you do yourself or hire out to be done specific to the problem at hand
Informal Primary Research (7)
-Key informants
-Field reports
-Focus groups
-Advisory committees
-in-depth interviews (with experts)
-call-in telephone lines
-emails/blogs, website feedback
Formal Primary Research (3)
-Content analyses
-Focus groups
-Random sample surveys
Value of triangulation
any one method of research we do, if that's ALL we do, you can't gurantee the results reflect true trends
Things to watch out for when conducting surveys (7)
-ensure representative samples
-conduct surveys at proper times
-avoid biased/leading questions
-avoid courtesy bias
-start with easy questions
-use Likert-type scales to ensure extent of feelings
-people are more likely to answer questions about other people
James Grunig on Publics
Organizations don't choose publics; publics choose you.
John Dewey on publics (2)
-Group whose members face same problem, recognize it exists, and organize to do something to do something about it
-Problem must have consequences on the public, and vice versa
What is public opinion?
-"...collective expression of opinion of many individuals bound into a group by common aims, aspirations, needs, ideas"
-"sum of individual opionions on an issue that affects individuals."
-a collection of views held by persons interested in the subject
>Self Interest<
Publics and Events (4)
-events trigger public opinion
-public opinion does not anticipate events, it only reacts to them
-huge events can sway public opinion; often only temporary
-if self-interest gets involved, then opinion endures
Grunig's Situational Theory (3)
Distinguished between active information seekers and passive processors
*Three motivators of publics
-Problem recognition (something is lacking)
-Level of involvement
-Constraint recognition (feeling as if little or nothing can be done)
Four types of publics over time
*apathetic: don't care about any issue
*hot issue: active on highly public issue
*single-issue: active on one narrow issue (ie saving the whales)
*all-issue: impelled to constant activism
Strategic PR planning (3)
-Define overall program goal "where do we want to end up?"
-Determine target publics "Who must the program respond to, reach, and affect?"
-Set objectives "What must be achieved with each public to accomplish our program goal?"
Objectives must be... (+3)
Woman who won Nobel Peace Prize with her one-woman PR campaign--why?
Jodi Williams, Land mine campaign
Setting objectives (5)
-determine strategies and tactics
-set responsibilities (who will do what?)
-develop timeline
-establish budget parameters
-sell the plan to management
Management decision-making, are they...(4)
-fully aware of publics who will be affected by decision, positively or negatively?
-taking into acocunt the possible reactions of these publics?
-including PR in mapping out appropriate communication or response strategies?
Communication vs. communications
Communication-process, goal
Communications-technical, mechanical method to make it happen
Communication process (8)
-process of encoding
-a message
-a channel
-a process of decoding
-a receiver
-the potential for feedback
-the possibility of noise

Communication arenas (3)
-interpersonal (face-to-face)
-machine assited interpersonal
-mass communication
Uses and gratification theory on media
people use media to advance their own goals--whatever they may be
Theory of selectivity (4)
Media makes you aware...
but rarely affects opinion--actually reinforce opinions
Five-stage adoption process
(buying a car...)
Elements that constitute effective messages (11)
-write with clarity (KISS)
-use symbols, acronyms, and slogans
-avoid jargon, cliches
-avoid euphemisms
-are repeated (gen. rule--person must see @ least 4 times)
-know your audience
-appeal to public's self-interest
-credible source/spokesperson
-message clarity
-audience buy-in or involvement
PR is a persuasion function to: (3)
-change or neutralize hostile opinions
-turn latent opinions into positive attitudes
-retain favorable opinions
Perfect persuasion
The Savior :)
When using celebrity endorsement, remember: (3)
-use simple messages
-ensure believability
-don't overuse
To have a credible source/spokesperson: (3)
Modern audience characteristics (4)
-increasingly visual oriented
-celebrity worshippers
-cynical about what they see/hear
-expanding globally
Print media
-best for complex messages
-cannot match electronic immediacy
-papers accept news releases/news tips
-magazines' special editions often match your message
Motion pictures
-strong emotional impact
-silent promos in movies increasing, but still limited
cost of inclusion prohibits all but largest entities
-institutional films, DVDs, becoming valuable PR tools
-Like movies, strong emotional impact
-leaves strong "visual memories"
-local and national reach for entities
-interviews and talk show guests
-video news releases
-highly adaptable
-specific audiences
-message prep quick & cheap
-easier access
-talk shows
-live reports
-local sponsorships
-most dynamic of all media
-broadest possible audience
-no gatekeepers
-cheap and easy
guidelines for media relations
-recognize differences in media
-follow legit news procedures
-make pitches clearly and quickly
-do not overly hype story or beg
-be honest and helpful
-do not speak off record
-NEVER say "no comment"
-do not ask to edit story
photo resolution
200-300 dpi
difference between "what is" and "what ought to be" from view of publics
Issue stages
Proactive approach to issues
-anticipate problems and threats
-minimize surprises
-resolve issues properly
-prevent crises
three degrees of evaluation
"How we live our lives; what is right and wrong, fair or unfair, caring or uncaring, good or bad, responsible or irresponsible and the like."
PR people are accountable to:
-their employers
-the public interest
-their professional association
PRSA's code of ethics
-Act responsibly
-be accurate and truthful; do not obstruct or corrupt information flow
-provide objective counsel and avoid conflicts of interest
-be faithful and loyal to organizations
-respect the opinions of others
-advance the profession through appropriate personal development
to prove defamation
-statement was communicated through media
-person was identified or identifiable
-actual injury occurred ($, reputation, mental suffering...)
-statement was malicious or negligent
Copyright term extension act
-life of creator +70 years
-corporation +95 years
Registration and trademarks
Registered trademark, or ®, tells you brand is protected
™is also protected, will become registered