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48 Cards in this Set
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What is Standard Error of Measurement?

Error variance for rel. coef. Compare two tests for which is more reliable. Calc'd on full sample.


What is the Standard Error of the Estimate?

Error variance for the val. coef. To compare an indiv. perf on two tests. It is calc'd on ind performances. Measures the predictive ability of the regression eq. The higher the corell, the lower the SEE, the more accurate the pred.


Cronbach's Alpha

Reliability coefficient that measures internal consistency:
r = (n/n1)*{Var(t)  Sum[Var(i)]}/Var(t) Use for Likert Scales 

Kuder Richardson

Reliability coefficient:
r = (n/n1)*{Var(t)  Sum[pq]}/Var(t) p=prob an item will be passed; q=probability it won't be passed. 

5 purposes of assessment

1. Screening; pop. prevalence
2. Problem solving 3. Diagnosis 4. Counseling & rehab. 5. Progress or program eval. 

4 pillars of assessment

1. Norm referenced tests
2. Interview(structured,semi,un) 3. Observations (structured, semi and un) 4. Informal Assessments Use no less than 3 sources for DX 

Assessment Process

1. Battery approacheveryone gets the same tests
2. Hypothesis testing  like a single subject exper design; tests are selected based on est cog functioning 

Social Validity

How likely is it that a recommendation will be followed


Spearman's g

FSIQ is made up of VIQ and PIQ (perfmormance IQ)
g stands for general mental ability and is a weighted avg of more specific abilities. 

Concurrent validity

Degree to which test scores relate to some currently available criterion.


Criterionrelated validity

Degree to which test scores relate to a type of criterion.


Content validity

Degree to which the test content represents the domain to be measured.


Construct validity

Degree tow which a test measures a psychological construct or trait.


Predictive validity

Degree to which the test score relates to criterion performance (requires a time delay to determine).


Factor analysis

Extracts first factor that accounts for the largest proportion of variance, then the next and so on. In intelligence tests the first factor is g.


Ageequivalent and gradeequivalent scores

Average test scores by age (aka Mental Age) and grade are used to report test scores. MA/CA X 100 = IQ


Clinical significance

Once troubled and disordered clients are now, after treatment, not distinguishable from a meaningful and representative nondisturbed reference group. The effect of sample size is neutralized.


Practical significance

Practical significance looks at whether the difference is large enough to be of value in a practical sense. Effect size puts the change on the normal curve.


Statistical significance

Statistical significance means that the observed mean differences are not likely due to sampling error. Tests hypothesis.


Theories of Intelligence

1. Factor Analytic
2. Information Processing 

Factor Analytic Theories of Intelligence

g is one FA theory and may include s or specific factors, making it a two factor theory.
Another is multifactor theory that equates the factors. An example is Horn's Crystallized vs fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence depends on culture while Fluid intelligence is culture free mental efficiency. 

Information Processing Theories of Intelligence

Structural component relates to the physical brain structure while the functional (executive) component relates to the learned component.


Norm refenced vs. Criterion referenced tests

Normed tests are comparisons to othter subjects on the same measure.
Criterion referenced tests compare to an established standard and measure mastery. 

WAIS III

Ages 1689


Executive Functions

Class of skills that enable independent, productive and goal directed behaviors.
Diff from cog functions which assess what we are capable of and how much of that capability we have. EF assess how we do something. 

Ceiling Level

Level at which the test ends for an age group (usually 2 SD's). Most subjects get the answers wrong.


Floor Level

Level at which the test starts for an age group and rep the level where most subjects (9598%)get the answer right.


Scales of Measurement

Nominal  values are names. does not rank order.
Ordinal  Rank order w/o regard to interval diff. Interval  Rank order with regard to interval diff. Eg, WAIS. Arbitrary zero and equal units. Ratio  True zero with equal units of equal ratios. No psych test does this. eg. weight 

Measures of dispersion

Range, Variance and Standard Deviation.
Corellation ind. direction and magnitude but not causality. Rsqrd is the variance (?). 

Regression to the mean

Scores at the extremes regress to the mean on retests.


Age equivalent score
Grade equivalent score 
Mean raw score for an age level.
Mean raw score for a grade Both are useful in academic & achievement tests. Age is prfrd unless the child is held back. 

Standard score

arbitray mean (10 or 100)with standarized dev (3 or 10)


Error Variance

Rel coeff ind stability of test and the amt of error variance. Represents any condition that is irrelavent to the purpose of the test.


Reducing Error Variance

Standardized adm instructions
Time limits Standardized scoring directions 

Testretest Reliability

As T rises, Corr coeff decreases. Problems include practice and memory effects. Time interval shb reported. 2 test admins.


Alternate Forms Reliability

Fewer practice and memory effects than TR, but difficulty level may not be ident. Time interval shb reported. Alt forms may be "immediate" (1 admin) or "delayed" (2 admins).


Splithalf Reliability

Single admin. Reducing # items reduces reliability of SH rel below TR rel. Content consistency. 1 test admin.


Kuder Richardson (KR20)

Evaluates intercorellations of all items in a dichotomous form. 1 Test admin.


Coefficient Alpha

Evals intercorellations for Likert scales. 1 test admin.


Interrater Reliability

Error variance is due to examiners.


Sources of Error

TR time sample
AF Immediate Content sampling AF Delayed Time & Content SH Content sampling KR20  Content sampling Alpha  Content and homogeneity sampling Interrater  Interscorer diffs 

Confidence Intervals

Uses SEM. Range of scores in which an indiv's true score will likely fall. The higher the SEM, the greater this range.


Validity

Measures corell b/w test and criterion performance. On a continuum and should not be typed.


Factors affecting validity (and rel coef)

Nature of the sample
Sample heterogeneity  restricting range reduces val coef. Form of the relationship  assumes homoscedasicity. Heteroscadiscity red. corell. 

Content Validity

Sys exam. of test content to see if rep sample of behavior. Procedures should be discussed.


Face Validity

Not a valid measure. Subjects more likely to take a face valid (relavent) test.


Criterionrelated validity

Effectiveness of a test in predicting an indiv. perf in a specified activity (IQ, pilot tests.
A. Concurrent  both tests given at the same time. B. Predictive  a time lapse exists. 

Constructrelated validity

Extent to which a test measures a theoretical construct or trait.
