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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Standard Error of Measurement?
Error variance for rel. coef. Compare two tests for which is more reliable. Calc'd on full sample.
What is the Standard Error of the Estimate?
Error variance for the val. coef. To compare an indiv. perf on two tests. It is calc'd on ind performances. Measures the predictive ability of the regression eq. The higher the corell, the lower the SEE, the more accurate the pred.
Cronbach's Alpha
Reliability coefficient that measures internal consistency:
r = (n/n-1)*{Var(t) - Sum[Var(i)]}/Var(t)
Use for Likert Scales
Kuder Richardson
Reliability coefficient:
r = (n/n-1)*{Var(t) - Sum[pq]}/Var(t)
p=prob an item will be passed; q=probability it won't be passed.
5 purposes of assessment
1. Screening; pop. prevalence
2. Problem solving
3. Diagnosis
4. Counseling & rehab.
5. Progress or program eval.
4 pillars of assessment
1. Norm referenced tests
2. Interview(structured,semi,un)
3. Observations (structured, semi and un)
4. Informal Assessments
Use no less than 3 sources for DX
Assessment Process
1. Battery approach-everyone gets the same tests
2. Hypothesis testing - like a single subject exper design; tests are selected based on est cog functioning
Social Validity
How likely is it that a recommendation will be followed
Spearman's g
FSIQ is made up of VIQ and PIQ (perfmormance IQ)

g stands for general mental ability and is a weighted avg of more specific abilities.
Concurrent validity
Degree to which test scores relate to some currently available criterion.
Criterion-related validity
Degree to which test scores relate to a type of criterion.
Content validity
Degree to which the test content represents the domain to be measured.
Construct validity
Degree tow which a test measures a psychological construct or trait.
Predictive validity
Degree to which the test score relates to criterion performance (requires a time delay to determine).
Factor analysis
Extracts first factor that accounts for the largest proportion of variance, then the next and so on. In intelligence tests the first factor is g.
Age-equivalent and grade-equivalent scores
Average test scores by age (aka Mental Age) and grade are used to report test scores. MA/CA X 100 = IQ
Clinical significance
Once troubled and disordered clients are now, after treatment, not distinguishable from a meaningful and representative nondisturbed reference group. The effect of sample size is neutralized.
Practical significance
Practical significance looks at whether the difference is large enough to be of value in a practical sense. Effect size puts the change on the normal curve.
Statistical significance
Statistical significance means that the observed mean differences are not likely due to sampling error. Tests hypothesis.
Theories of Intelligence
1. Factor Analytic
2. Information Processing
Factor Analytic Theories of Intelligence
g is one FA theory and may include s or specific factors, making it a two factor theory.
Another is multifactor theory that equates the factors. An example is Horn's Crystallized vs fluid intelligence.
Crystallized intelligence depends on culture while Fluid intelligence is culture free mental efficiency.
Information Processing Theories of Intelligence
Structural component relates to the physical brain structure while the functional (executive) component relates to the learned component.
Norm refenced vs. Criterion referenced tests
Normed tests are comparisons to othter subjects on the same measure.
Criterion referenced tests compare to an established standard and measure mastery.
Ages 16-89
Executive Functions
Class of skills that enable independent, productive and goal directed behaviors.
Diff from cog functions which assess what we are capable of and how much of that capability we have. EF assess how we do something.
Ceiling Level
Level at which the test ends for an age group (usually 2 SD's). Most subjects get the answers wrong.
Floor Level
Level at which the test starts for an age group and rep the level where most subjects (95-98%)get the answer right.
Scales of Measurement
Nominal - values are names. does not rank order.
Ordinal - Rank order w/o regard to interval diff. Interval - Rank order with regard to interval diff. Eg, WAIS. Arbitrary zero and equal units.
Ratio - True zero with equal units of equal ratios. No psych test does this. eg. weight
Measures of dispersion
Range, Variance and Standard Deviation.
Corellation ind. direction and magnitude but not causality. Rsqrd is the variance (?).
Regression to the mean
Scores at the extremes regress to the mean on retests.
Age equivalent score
Grade equivalent score
Mean raw score for an age level.
Mean raw score for a grade
Both are useful in academic & achievement tests. Age is prfrd unless the child is held back.
Standard score
arbitray mean (10 or 100)with standarized dev (3 or 10)
Error Variance
Rel coeff ind stability of test and the amt of error variance. Represents any condition that is irrelavent to the purpose of the test.
Reducing Error Variance
Standardized adm instructions
Time limits
Standardized scoring directions
Test-retest Reliability
As T rises, Corr coeff decreases. Problems include practice and memory effects. Time interval shb reported. 2 test admins.
Alternate Forms Reliability
Fewer practice and memory effects than T-R, but difficulty level may not be ident. Time interval shb reported. Alt forms may be "immediate" (1 admin) or "delayed" (2 admins).
Split-half Reliability
Single admin. Reducing # items reduces reliability of S-H rel below T-R rel. Content consistency. 1 test admin.
Kuder Richardson (KR20)
Evaluates intercorellations of all items in a dichotomous form. 1 Test admin.
Coefficient Alpha
Evals intercorellations for Likert scales. 1 test admin.
Interrater Reliability
Error variance is due to examiners.
Sources of Error
T-R time sample
A-F Immediate Content sampling
A-F Delayed Time & Content
S-H Content sampling
KR20 - Content sampling
Alpha - Content and homogeneity sampling
Interrater - Inter-scorer diffs
Confidence Intervals
Uses SEM. Range of scores in which an indiv's true score will likely fall. The higher the SEM, the greater this range.
Measures corell b/w test and criterion performance. On a continuum and should not be typed.
Factors affecting validity (and rel coef)
Nature of the sample
Sample heterogeneity - restricting range reduces val coef.
Form of the relationship - assumes homoscedasicity. Heteroscadiscity red. corell.
Content Validity
Sys exam. of test content to see if rep sample of behavior. Procedures should be discussed.
Face Validity
Not a valid measure. Subjects more likely to take a face valid (relavent) test.
Criterion-related validity
Effectiveness of a test in predicting an indiv. perf in a specified activity (IQ, pilot tests.
A. Concurrent - both tests given at the same time.
B. Predictive - a time lapse exists.
Construct-related validity
Extent to which a test measures a theoretical construct or trait.