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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name three common ways to navigate
Pilotage - reference to visible landmarks
Dead Reckoning - computing direction and distance from a known position
Radio Navigation - use of radio aids
What type of aeronautical charts are available for use in VFR navigation?
Sectional Charts
VFR Terminal Area Charts (TAC)
World Aeronautical Charts (WAC)
VFR Flyway Planning Charts
Describe a Sectional Chart
Designed for visual navigation of slow/medium speed aircraft. One inch = 6.86NM. Revised semi-annually except certain Alaska charts.
Describe a VFR Terminal Area Chart (TAC)
Depict Class B airspace. More detail - one inch = 3.43NM.REvised semiannually. Vi and Pr revised annually.
Describe a World Aeronautical Chart (WAC)
For moderate speed acft operation @ high altitudes. Larger scale, oneinch = 13.7NM. Not recommended for low speed low altitude acft. Revised annually except a few in AK & Caribbean (biannually)
Describe a VFR Flyaway Chart
Printed on the reverse side of select TACs.Depicts flight altitudes and paths to bypass high traffic areas.
What is an "isogonic line"?
Shown on most aeronautical charts as broken magenta lines, they connect points of equal magnetic variation. They show the ammount and direction of magnetic variation.
What is "magnetic variation"?
The angle between true north and magnetic north. Expressed in east or west variation depending upon if magnetic north (MN) is east or west of true north (TN)
How do you convert a true direction to a magnetic direction?
To convert true course/heading to magnetic course/heading, note the variation shown by the nearest isogonic line. East - subtract / West - add
"East is Least" or "West is Best"
What are lines of latitude and longitude?
Circles parallel to the equator (east-west), parallelsof latitude, enable us to measure distance in degrees latitude north or south of the equator. Meridna sof longitude are north to south and are at right angles to the equator. The Prime Meridian is used at the 'zero' line in degreess east and west to 180° west. CONUS is between 25° & 49° north latitude and 67° & 125° west longitude.
What is "magnetic variation"?
Influences within the aircraft (radios, engine, etc.) the compass needle is deflected from its normal heading. Deviation is different for each aircraft and can be found on the aircraft deviation card.
Name several types of radio aids to air navigation.
NDB - nondirectional beacon
VOR - very high omnidirectional range
VORTAC - VHF omnidirectional range/tactical air navigation
DME - distance measuring equipment
RNAV (area navigation)- includes INS, LORAN, VOR/DME referenced, and GPS.
What is a VOR or VORTAC?
VORs are VHF radio stations that project radials in all directions (360°) from the station. Each of these radials in denoted by its outbound magnetic direction. VOR can also be a VORTAC. A VORTAC provides the standard bearign information of a VOR plus distance information for aircraft with DME.
Within what frequency range do VORs operate?
Transmitting frequencies of omnirange stations are in the VHF band between 108 and 117.95 MHz, which are immediately below aviation comm frequencies.
What is a VOR "radial"?
A radial is defined as a line of magnetic bearing extending from a VOR. A VOR projects 360 radials from the station. The radials are always identified by their direction "from" the station. Regardless of heading, an aircraft on the 360° radial will always be located north of the station.
What limitations, if any, apply to VOR recepetion distances?
VORs are subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment.
What are the different methods for checking the accuracy of VOR receiver equipment?
VOT Check: +/- 4°
Gnd checkpoint: +/- 4°
Airborne checkpoint: +/- 6°
Dual VOR check: 4° between eachother
Selected radial over a known ground point: +/- 6°
What is an "NDB"?
A nondirectional beacon; a low to medium frequency radio beacon transmits nondirectional signals whereby a pilot of a properly equipped aircraft can determin bearings and "home" or "track" to the station.
Within what frequency range to NDBs operate?
These facilities normally operate in the frequencyband of 190 to 535 kHz (immediately below AM bands) and transmit a continuous carrier with either 400 or 1020 Hz modulation. All radio beacons, except compass locatorstransmit a continuous three-letter identifier.
What is "ADF"?
Automatic direction finder. Many GA acft are equipped with ADF equipment which operate in low to medium frequency bands. TO navigate with the ADF, tune the receiving equipment to an NDB. Themost common method is "homing" by flying the needle to the station.
What are some of the advantages of ADF navigation?
Low cost/low MX equipment; Low/medium frequencies not effected by line of sight; teh signals follow the curvature of the earth; the signal can be recieved regardless of altitude.
What are some of the disadvantages of ADF navigation?
Low frequency signals susceptible to electrical disturbances (lightning, precip static, etc.); these disturbances can create excessive static, needle variations, and signal fades; at night, there may be interference from distant stations.
What is "DME"?
Distance measuring equipment (airborne and ground) - used to measure, in NM, the the slant range distance of an aircraft from the DME navigational aid. DME equipped acft are provided with distance and ground speed information when receiving a VORTAC or TACAN facility. Operates in the UHF spectrum between 960 MHZ and 1215 MHz.