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26 Cards in this Set

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is determined by biology and refers to differences in genitalia and chromosomes
Sex
refers to the concepts of “female” and “male” as socially-constructed ideas
Gender
Men are from mars and women are from venus?
Research shows there is not much validity to these characteristic attributions

There is substantial overlap between the distributions of male and female traits and behaviors
REAL SUBSTANTIATED DIFFERENCES IN SEX
-males have better spatial abilities

-females have better verbal skills

-males are more aggressive (verbally and physically)

-females are better non-verbal communicators
Psychoanalytic explanation of male-female sex differences?
Differences in traits arise from emotional responses to differences in the physical structure of boys and girls
Neoanalytical (Erikson) explanation of male-female sex differences?
Gender specific traits are tied to physical construction of genitalia
Males: outward-extending genitalia, hence such traits
i.e., active, exploring, warring
Females: internal genitalia, hence such traits
Neoanalytical (Horney) explanation of male-female sex differences?
Women envy men’s opportunities in society, not their penises
In fact, men feel inferior because they are not able to have children  so try to achieve and control to compensate (WOMB-ENVY)
How does neoanalytical theory (Jung) explain male-female differences?
Anima – the feminine inner personality that is present in the unconscious of males

Animus – the masculine inner personality that is present in the unconscious of females

The healthy personality incorporates both masculine and feminine aspects
How does neoanalytical theory (Choodrow) explain male-female differences?
Primary identification is ALWAYS with the mother. In males, identification is later turned away from the mother.
How does biological/evolutionary psychology explain the differences between men and women?
Successful reproduction requires different sexual behaviors for men and women
Men: many sexual partners to perpetuate their genes
Women: few, carefully selected sexual partners
How do biological/evolutionary psychologists explain male and female differnces as they relate to CHROMOSOMES?
Chromosomes: XX vs. XY
Y – secretion of Androgen (male-making hormones)
Androgen (or lack thereof) initiates development of male or female genitalia
How do BEHAVIORIST psychologists explain male and female differnces?
Gender typed personality characteristics are attained through:
Reinforcement
Modeling
Conditioning
Generalization

Parents, peers, schools, the media all participate in this training
Its important to remember then under the BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE THAT...
if society shapes gender differences... then they can be changed
How do COGNITIVE psychologists explain male and female differnces?
GENDER Schemas act as “cognitive filters”
The lense through which we process gender-relevant information
How we categorize the expected characteristics of genders
How do TRAIT psychologists explain male and female differnces?
Historically, femininity and masculinity have been conceptualized as opposite poles of a single trait.

More recently it has been explained as two continuums one for masculinity and femmininity.
Sandra Bem's classification of masuclinity and femininity?
If you are high in masculinity and low in feminity: MASCULINE

If you are high in femininty and low in masculinty you are: FEMININE

If you are high in both you are considered: Androgenous

If you are low in both you are considered: undifferentiated.
Which of the four scenarios does Bem suggest would be most adaptive?
Androgenous. Able to be forthwright and nurturing at the same time.
EMOTIONAL DIFFERENCES IN MEN AND WOMEN?
Male babies cry more often than female babies. Yet men cry less than women cry. WHY?

-gender differences appear to be in the "expression" of emotion and not in the "amount" of emotional experience.
Differences in ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION?
Women are not as motivated to achieve as are men.

Some suggest that a women's greater need to be accepted disrupts their motivation to achieve.
How did Humanists explain the differences betweeen men and women?
Maslow said that there were no differences between men and women from a psychological perspective it was CULTURAL INFLUENCE that connected women to low dominance (BEHAVIORIST ARGUMENT)
What school of thought is most willing to suggest that there are NO differences between men and women (progressive)
Humanists. They also believe that society will change and one day the genders will be equal.
How do interactionists explain differences between males and females?
GENDER RELEVANT ACTIVITIES ARE TIED TO SOCIAL SITUATIONS.

f.e: helping fix a flat tire (men) helping in a kitchen (women)...
The idea that women are more social...
HAS little or no empirical evidence.
influenceability
studies CONFIRM women are more liekely to CONFORM
The idea that women lack sexuality is
fairly recent (victorian error) in fact before the era it was believed women were insatiable and vulnerable therefore to demon possession.
Sexual responses are far MORE SIMILAR than they are different. in fact,
Very few biological differences which suggest that CULTURE and CONDITIONING are VERY IMPORTANT!