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38 Cards in this Set

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Interpersonal theory of psychiatry
focuses on the recurring social situations faced by an individual
who we are and how we think of ourselves arises from interactions with those around us
Social self
the idea that a person has a single, fixed personality is just an illusion

We may have as many personalities as we have interpersonal situations
illusion of individuality
WHO believed "we become different people based on different situations"
Harry stack Sullivan
What is chumship
-has to do with social self

-The idea that we use others as a social mirror to see what/who we are.
-Seeking peer acceptance
-distancing oneself from parents (adolescence)
Sullivan believed these were the TWO motivations...
Pursuit of satisfaction

Pursuit of security
How did Sullivan believe one developed anxiety?
Individuals "CATCH" anxiety from the caregivers.

-children are very sensative to their caretakers' feelings and attitudes.
What are sullivans 2 proposed infant states?
Anxious and Non-anxious persona
What are characteristics of the non-anxious persona?
-euphoria when experiencing acceptance of others.

-experienced as "the good mother"
What are characteristics of an anxious persona?
-experience dysphoria when they sense disapproval from others.

-experienced as the "bad mother"
What are the consequences of being an anxious persona?
-results in mounting anxiousness and a heightened need for security.
Sullivan believed that therapy is and that therapist must...
1.) appreciate their clients ability to change

2.) UNCOVER THE FORCES CAUSING RECURRENT MISTAKES IN CLIENTS

3.) help the client make experiments for more successfully behaving
henry murray perferred this term to "personality"
PERSONOLOGY
How did Murray view personality?
The study of human lives across time.
What two components did Murray believe sum to make a person's personality?
Unconscious motives and environemental conditions
What is "environmental press"?
The PUSH of a situation (a situation is what forces someone to act the way they do)
Physical conditions that create the desire to obtain or avoid something.

Internal directional force that influences behavior
-Necessitates taking action
Needs
external events (press) create the desire to obtain or avoid something.
Press
REALIZE: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEEN NEEDS AND PRESS?
One is an internal drive (needs) while one is an external drive (press).
COGNITIONS THAT ACT AS A motivational state, you will indirectly experience that need or press, and move toward the goal
Motives (thirst)
What did Murray believe drove behavior?
NEEDS (named a total of 27 needs)
How did Murray suggest that needs work together?
Several needs can be met by a single behavior.

He also believed that needs can conflict
typical combinations of needs and presses were termed
THEMA
How are THEMA measured?
Measured with TAT. meant to measure projected fantasies onto an objective stimulus.
what modern personality approach was believed to be influenced by murray?
Narrative approach- where a person's biography or life story becomes their identity.
What is Mischel's Critique of personality?
He believes that regardless of trait, a person's behavior cannot be predicted.
IN FACT, WHAT IS THE CORRELATION (AND EFFECT SIZE) OF TRAIT PREDICTING BEHAVIOR?
.3
type of self control that occurs when an individual chooses to forgo an immediate reinforcer to wait for a later, better one
Delay of gratification
What influences our delay of gratification?
Modeling- seeing another person delay gratification

Visibility- if the goal is not "able to be seen" it is forgotten
("out of sight, out of mind")
What is implicit personalality theory?
Just like Fundamental Attribution error.

The idea that we attribute the behavior of others to their internal personality characteristics.

while for ourselves we seek justification for our actions externally.
The power of situations
- one reason traits dont predict our behavior.

-certain situations provide an opportunity for certain traits to be expressed.
What is aggregation?
averaging of cross-situational behaviors to deal with reliability and appropriatness problems in evaluating SITUATIONS.
What method of study did Micschel believe was necessary for psychological research?
To really study people as they react, grow, and change in the real world, longitudinal study is necessary
What is the life course approach?
the study of personality over the course of a persons life since so much changes as a function of age, culture, social groups, life events, internal drives, motives, abilities and traits.
the extent to which individuals are likely to respond appropriately in a given situation, as a function of their prior experiences with that situation
Readiness
IMPORTANT TO NOTE ABOUT READINESS
We are more affected by certain environments at certain times in our lives

SAME EVENT COULD HAVE DIFFERENT IMPACT BASED ON OUR READINESS!
THE CIRCUMPLEX MODEL
Two traits are evaluated (affiliation and assertiveness) and ones place on those two scales will dictate where a person stands in social interactions
Ego development
Undeveloped ego
Impulsive, self-protective, conformist

Highly developed ego
Individualistic (open-minded), autonomous (self-fulfilled, respectful of others), “integrated”