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13 Cards in this Set

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Personality definition
The consistent and distinctive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors an individual engages in.
what two parts of the definition are most important?
CONSISTANT AND DISTINCTIVE
Book's defenition of psychology
The scientific study of the psychological forces that make an individual unique
What are the 8 aspects of personality
Unconscious
Ego forces
Cognitive
Biological
Conditioning
Traits
Spiritual
Person-situation interaction
What are the 4 tools of the scientific method we use to study personality?
Correlational studies
Case studies
Cross-cultural
Biological structures
Correlational research

-definition
- causation
- Disadvantages
Correlational studies help test associations.

They DO NOT prove causation

This is their main disadvantage they sometimes create webs of connections that may have lurking variables.
Case studies

-Definition
-Advantages
-Disadvantages
A somewhat naturalistic observation of the subject and recording of their behaviors.

Heavy focus on the individual

Not generalizable.
Biological structures method
This is the study of biological strucures in the brain and how they may account for personality.
Deductive reasoning
when conclusions follow logically from a generalization or a theory.

ex: making sense of someone's behavior b/c this is what anyone in this situation would act.
inductive approach
is so called because concepts and generalizations are made from an observation
Inductive reason is
whereas deductive reasoning is:
Bottom-up (specific to general) ; top-down (general to specific)
What four theories are essential for a personality theory to be a good one:
Parsimonious- easiest explanation is most often correct.

Comprehensive- makes sense of all personalities in various situations and various genders, orientations, races...

Falsifiable- it is testable (where most early theories fail).

Productive- must be able to tell us something... ussually must be able to predict something about a person.
What is the BARNUM effect?
The tendency for individuals to believe broad generalizations.

(A subjective validation in whcih a person finds personal meaning in statements that could apply to anyone)

f.e: Fortune cookies, horoscopes, psycics.