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31 Cards in this Set

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5HT partial agonist
BuSpar (buspirone)
a2 agonist
Catapres (clonidine)
Beta Blockers
Inderal (propanolol)
Tenormin atenolol
Benzodiazepines (anxiety)
Valium (diazepam)
Librium (chlordiazepoxide)
Serax (oxazepam)
Ativan (lorazepam)
Xanax (alprazolam)
Klonopin (clonazepam)
non-benzodiazepines (sleep)
Ambien (zolpidem)
Sonata (zaleplon)
Lunesta (eszopiclone)
Natural Sleep products
Melatonin
Valerian
Antidepressants used for insomnia
Elavil (amitriptylline*)
Desyrel (trazodone*)
Serzone* (nefazodone)
Benzodiazepines (sleep)
Dalmane (flurazepam)
Restoril (temazepam)
Halcion (triazolam)
Doral (quazepam)
Antihistamines
Diphenhydramine
Doxylamine
Hydroxyzine
Melatonin agonist
Rozerem (varenicline tartrate)
Ways panic disorders can be induced.
sodium lactate infusion or CO2—mechanism may be stimulation of NE mechanisms in locus coeruleus; associated with increased blood flow in right parahippocampus.
Brain changes as the result of repeated panic attacks.
Temporal lobe abnormalities in white matter, plus ventricular enlargement correlate with number of attacks and age on onset.
Effect of benzodiazepines on panic attacks.
increase inhibitory effects of GABA (which lets Cl- in)
Effect of Buspar (buspirone)on panic attacks.
affects 5HTIA receptors, which have abnormal density in anxiety disorders.
Factors involved in PTSD
genetic, familial, situational
Probable biological origin of PTSD
involves startle response circuits that include NMDA-mediated mechanisms in amygdala and brain-stem pathways, and failure of extinction mechanisms, as well as behavioral sensitization mechanisms (enhanced response magnitudes which probably involve increases in dopamine)
Likely cause for flashbacks and amnesia from PTSD
cell loss in right hippocampus: damage likely by stress-induced glucocorticoids?
Brain areas with increased metabolism associated with OCD
left orbitaofrontal gyrus, cingulate and bilateral caudate
What other two disorders share the same brain excitation as OCD?
Tourette's, and also sometimes in ADHD
What brain areas show a blood flow increase when OCD symptoms are provoked?
right caudate, left anterior cingulate gyrus, and bilateral orbitofrontal
What neurotransmitter effect does BuSpar have on anxiety?
5HT1A partial agonist
What neurotransmitter effect do alpha-2s have on anxiety?
agonists on presynaptic autoreceptors or beta 1 blockers on post-synaptic receptors can inhibit noradrenergic overactivity in locus coeruleus
What neurotransmitter effect do benzodiazepines have on anxiety?
interact with GABA receptors, primarily GABA-A type
What is the first rule in treating insomnia?
First determine the cause, then treat underlying disorder if there is one
What characterizes the ideal sleep-aid?
rapid-onset, short half-life
What neurotransmitters are implicated in OCD?
5HT and DA
What is the average time for an SSRI to be effective against OCD?
4-8 weeks
What is the preferred course of therapy for OCD?
Initially treat with drugs if necessary, but best and longest-lasting treatment is CBT.
What are treatments options for Panic Disorder and Panic attacks
a. SSRI's, but at a lower dose than for depression
b. Other antidepressants
c. Benzodiazepines—but these are problematic for long-term use
d. CBT is as effective and longer-lasting than any drug treatment
What are treatment options for phobias?
1. Specific phobias—treat with desensitization
2. Social phobias—treat with beta blockers for NE overactivity, or SSRI's; as usual, psychotherapy is best approach, especially along with drugs
What is the best psychotropic treatment for PTSD?
SSRIs.