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170 Cards in this Set

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Receptor Cells
Located on the cell surface or in the target cell, to recognise a specific hormone and translate the hormonal signal into a cellular response
Anabolic
accelerated growth of muscle, bone, and red blood cells, and enhanced neural conduction
Negative feedback
Response reverses a change in a controlled condition
Positive feedback
Response strengthens the change in a controlled condition
Primary endocrine disorders
Defects in endocrine function, target gland is normal, but function is producing the hormone
Secondary endocrine disorders
Disorders of the endocrine function, target gland is normal, but function is altered by defective levels of stimulating hormones or releasing factors
Tertiary endocrine disorders
Disorders result from hypothalamic dysfunction thus both the pituitary and target organ are under stimulated
Counter regulatory hormone
Opposes the action of another hormone
Gap 1 phase
Postmitotic phase, during DNA synthesis stop white RNA and protein synthesis and cell growth takes place
S phase
DNA synthesis occurs, forming 2 x chromosomes, 1 / daughter cell
Gap 2 phase
premitotic phase (similar to gap 1 phase), DNA stops white RNA and protein synthesis continue
M phase
Nuclear division, or mitosis and cytokinesis or cytoplasmic division
Cyclins
Family of proteins that control the entry and progression of cells through the cell cycle; functions are to bind to (therefore activating) proteins called cyclin-dependant kinases (CDKs)
CDKs
Phosphorylate specific target proteins and are expressed continuously during the cell cycle but in an inactive form
CDK-inhibitors
regulate cell cycle checkpoints during which mistakes in DNA replication are reparied
Tumour suppressor gene
Gene that protects a cell from 1 step on the path to cancer
Telomere
length of DNA at the end of a chromosomes, made up of 6 nucleotide bases that is involved in the replication and stability of DNA molecules
Senescence
normal response to DNA damage in cells
Embryonic stem cell
pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of embryo
Adult stem cell
specialised microenvironments and have important roles in homeostasis as they contribute to tissue regeneration and replacement of cells lost to apoptosis
Tumor marker
Antigen expressed on the surface of tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of a tumor
Mutagen
Chemical or physical agent that causes a genetic mutation or increases the mutation rate by causing changes in DNA
Oncogenic viruses
virus capable of inducing the formation of cancer
Oncogene
Potentially cancer-inducing gene
Lymphatic spread
invasion into the lymphatic system is followed by the transport of tumor cells to regional lymph nodes and ultimately to other parts of the body
Haematogenous spread
Typical of all sarcomas but it is the favoured route in certain carcinomas (e.g. originating from the kidneys) - Disseminated in the blood stream
Angiogenesis
Development of new blood vessels
Radiation therapy
Uses high-energy particles to destroy or damage cancer cells
Sinusitis
inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
ventilation
movement of air out of the lungs
Respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and body cells
Central chemoreceptors
respond to changes in the hydrogen ion concentration of the cerebral spinal fluid
Peripheral chemoreceptors
detect blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
ventilation:perfusion ratio
the ratio of airflow into the lungs divided by the pulmonary blood flow
Pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction
pulmnary arteries constrict in the presence of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) without hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels, redirecting blood flow to the alveoli with higher oxygen content
CCK
Cholecystokinin - hormone responsible for stimulating the gallbladder; stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes; slows gastric emptying; stimulates biliary secretion of fluid and bicarbonate
Chylomicrons
Largest of lipoproteins synthesised in the small intestine; transports triglycerides and cholesterol to adipose and skeletal muscle tissue
Micelles
Lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in an aqueous solutions that allow non-soluble lipid products to mix with chyme and travel through the small intestine
Kupffer cells
Macrophages that are attached to the luminal surface in the liver
Urea
Synthesised as part of urea cycle, either from oxidation of amino acids or ammonia
Uric acid
Formed when the body breaks down purine (found in food/drink)
Anorexia
No desire to eat food at all; not a choice
Anorexia nervosa
Choice not to eat food because imbalanes in brain make them think negatively about their body
Haematemesis
Blood in vomitus
Melana
The passage of black, tarry stools composed largely of blood that has been acted on by gastric juices, indicative of bleeding in the upper digestive tract
Occult blood
Blood in the stool, but not visible to the human eye
Dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing
Achalasia
Disorder of the oesophagus that prevents swallowing
Osmotic diarrhoea
water is pulled into the bowel by the hyperosmotic nature of its contents
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Chron's disease and Ulcerative Colitis; characterised by inflammation or ulceration
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
characterised as a function disease or syndrome with a diagnosis made on a cluster of symptoms in the absence of notable structural abnormalities
What does H. pylori excrete?
Urease which enables it to produce enough ammonia to buffer stomach acid allowing it to pass into the duodenal site
Marasmus
Chronic wasting of the body tissues, especially in young children
Kwashiorkor
A sever malnutrition of infants or young children, primarily in tropical and substropical regions
Icterus
Jaundice
Prodromal stage
stage after incubation usually lasting 1-2 weeks
Icteric stage
2ndary stage of hepatitis last about 2-3 weeks
Recovery stage
3rd stage of heptatis last up to 4 months for HBV/HCV; up to 2-3 months for HAV
Hepatomegaly
Abnormal enlargement of the liver
Hepatitis
Infectious liver disease resulting in several physiological disorders, depending on what type of hepatitis it is (viral, non-viral)
Barrett's disease
Complication of GORD that results in metaplasia of the epithelium lining the oesophagus to become more like epithelium that lines the intestine
GORD (gastro oesophageal reflux disease
Chronic disease tht occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter does not close properly and stomach contents leak back into the oesophagus
Cirrhosis
Fibrosis of the liver; can cause portal venous hypertension
Ascites
accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity) due to hepatic portal vein being blocked up from increased pressure, therefore water and proteins have nowhere else to go but into the peritoneal cavity
Splenomegaly
Abnormal enlargement of the spleen
Jaundice
Yellowing of the skin and sclera (white of eyes) due to excess bilirubin in the blood
Encephalopathy
Brain disease or malfunction causing mental confusion, muscle twitching, coma, seizures, or tremors
Intussusception
Intestinal folding or "telescoping" of one segment of the intestine into another adjacent distal segment of the intestine - most common place is where the small and large bowel meet
Gap 1 Phase
Part of Interphase in the cell cycle; DNA synthesis stops while RNA synthesis, protein synthesis and cell growth occur
S phase
occurs in interphase of the cell cycle; DNA synthesis occurs forming 2 chromosomes, 1 pair for each daughter cell
Gap 2 phase
Part of interphase in cell cycle; premitotic phase where DNA synthesis stops while RNA syntheis and protein synthesis occur (similar to G1 phase)
M Phase
Mitotic phase which is when Nuclear division, mitosis, and cytokinesis occur producing 2 daughter cells
Cyclins
Family of proteins that control the entry and progression (activation) of cyclin-dependant kinases (CDKs)
CDKs
Cyclin dependant kinases phosphorylate specific target proteins and are continually expressed throughout the cell cycle but in an inactive form
CDK inhibitors
Cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors that regulate cell cycle checkpoints during which mistakes in DNA replications are repaired.
Tumor suppressor gene
A gene that protects cells from 1 step on the path to cancer
DNA repair genes
Genes that are able to repair non-lethal damage to pro-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and genes that control apoptosis.
Telomerase
a length of DNA at the end of a chromosome, composed of 6 nucleotide bases, that are involved in replication and stability of DNA molecules
Senescence
An inevitable process of deterioration from ageing and the normal response to DNA damage in cells
Telomerase
An enzyme that is found in the telomeres of chromosomes in germ cells or stem cells
Stem cell renewal
Stem cells can divide to produce more stem cells and other cells that carry out functions of differentiated cells
Stem cell potency
Stem cells can determine the potency of deferentiated stem cells
Adult stem cells
have specialised microenvironmens and play an important role in maintaing homeostatsis such as tissue regeneration and replacement of cells lost due to apoptosis
Embryonic stem cells
Pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the embryo
Unipotent
Gives rise to one type of differentiated cell
Oligopotent
Produces small number of cells
Pluripotent
Gives rise to numerous cell types
Benign
cells that are clustered together in a well-defined fibrous capsule
Malignant
(cancer) have the ability to escape into the circulatory or lymphatic systems and form secondary tumors
Adenoma
Benign tumor of glandular epithelium tissue
Adenocarcinoma
Malignant tumor of glandular epithelial tissue
Carcinoma
Malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
Sarcoma
Malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin
Papilloma
Benign microscopic or macroscopic fingerlike projection growing on a surface
Osteoma
Benign tumor of bone tissue
Anaplasia
Regrssion of a differentiated cell to a less differentiated stage, in cancerous tissue
Progression
Tumors aquire malignant phenotypic changes (expression of a particular trait) that promote invasiveness, matastic competence, autonomous growth tendencies and increased karyotypic instability (characterization of chromosomes : arrangement, number, size, and/or shape)
Tumor marker
A tumor marker is an antigen that is expressed on the surface of a tumor cell or substances that are released from normal cells in response to the presence of a tumor
Example of tumor marker
PSA - Prostate specific antigen
Mutagen
A mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that causes genetic mutation or increase the rate of genetic mutation by causing changes in DNA
Oncogenic virus
A virus capable of inducing the formation of cancer
Oncogene
Potentially cancer-inducing gene
Initiation
Cells are exposed to a carcinogenic agent, making them susceptible to malignant transformation
Promotion
Unregulated, accelerated growth in already initiated cells caused by various chemicals and growth factors
Progression
Tumor cells aquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastic competence, autonomous growth tendencies and increased karyotypic instability
Lymphatic spread
Invasion of the lymphatic system by cancer, followed by transportation of tumor cells into the lymph nodes and ultimately to other parts of the body
Haemotogenous spread (Blood stream)
A route favoured by carcinomas and sarcomas
Angiogenesis
Formation of new blood vessels
TP53
Inhibits angiogenesis by inducing the synthesis of an antiangiogenic molecule
Radiation
Radiation therapy uses high energy particles to damage or destroy cancer cells; radiation either kill immediately or halts or delays the cell cycle progression; radiation convices cancer cells undergoing proccessing to undergo apoptosis.
Anaplasia
Regression of a differentiated cell to a less differentiated stage, in cancerous tissue
3 steps of invasion
1. Attachment
2. Dissolution
3. Locomotion
Dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing
Odynophagia
painful swallowing
Achalasia
failure of esophageal sphincter to relax
Diverticulosis
one or multiple herniations of the mucosal layer
Diverticulitis
complication of diverticulosis - inflammation
Cholestasis
Decreased bile flow through the intrahepatic canaliculi
Cholelithiasis
gall stones
Cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
Cholangitis
inflammation of the common bile duct
Acromegaly
When GH excess occurs in adulthood or after epiphyses of long bones have fused.
Haematoemesis
Vomitting of blood - source usually upper GIT or oesophageal varices
Achalasia
Disorder which prevents normal swallowing due to degenerationof nerve cells that normall tell brain to relax oesophageal sphincter
Apnoea
Temporary absence or cessation of breathing
Atelectasis
Partial or complete collapse of the lung.
Hypoxia
Decreased oxygen to the tissues
Hyperponea
Increasing breathing rate
Orthopnoea
Discomfort breathing
Hypoxaemia
low oxygen levels in the blood
Hypercapnia
excess carbon dioxide in the blood
Hyspnoea
shortness of breath
Tachyponea
abnormal rate of breathing
Paroxysmal noctural dyspnoea
attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing
Kussmaul respiration
deep and laboured breathing
Wheeze
breathe with a whistling or rattling sound
Stridor
harsh vibrating noise when breathing
Cheyne-stokes respiration
abnormal breathing; periods of shallow and deep breaths
Haemoptysis
blood in the lungs
Cyanosis
bluish discolouration of extremeties from excess deoxygenated Hb in blood
Friction rub
squeaking or grating sounds of pleural linings rubbing together
Clubbing
changes in areas under and around toenails and fingernails
Aspiration
bringing air into lungs through a sucking motion
sinusitis
inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
Ventilation
Inhalation and exhalation; does not participate in gas exchange
Respiration
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the body cells
central chemoreceptors
respond to changes in hydrogen ion concentration of the crebral spinal fluid
perpipheral chemoreceptors
respond to changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
where are the central and peripheral chemoreceptors located
bronchioles
ventilation: perfusion ratio
the ratio of airflow into the lungs divided by the pulmonary blood flow
Pneumothorax
presence of air in the pleural space causes partial or complete collapse of the lung
Pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
Pulmonary fibrosis
scarring of the lung
transudate
clear fluid causing congestive heart failure
exudate
fluid with high content of protein and cellular debris
granulomatous lesions
collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes
4 types of lung cancer
1. squamous cell carcinoma
2. adenocarcinoma
3. large cell carcinoma
4. small cell lung cancer: brain metastases common with SCLC and may provide the first evidence of the tumour. Inflitrates widely, disseminates early
Hemoptysis
coughing up blood
Croup
respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway; swelling inisde the throat which interferes with normal breathing
Epiglottitis
infected and inflamed epiglottis
Bronchiolitis
inflammation of the bronchioles
Mineralcorticoids
aldosterone, ADH; salt savers, water retention; potassium waster
Glucocorticoids
cortisol
androgens
anabolic hormones; build muscle; male characteristics; testosterone
Receptor cells
located on the cell surface or in the target cell, to recognise a specific hormone and translate the hormonal signal into a cellular response
primary endocrine disorder
defects in endocrine function originate in the target gland responsible for producing th ehormone
secondary endocrine disorder
disorders of the endocrine function, target gland is normal but function is altered
tertiary endocrine disorder
disorders result from hypthalamic dysfunction
hypoglycaemia
deficiency of glucose in bloodstream
hyperglycaemia
excess glucose in bloodstream