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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Committee Functions
study issues and provide expertise
channel ambition
represent groups, institutional credit taking
House Committee vs Senate Committee
House more reliant (senate more work on floor). House more specialized.
House originates tax bills so ways and means more powerful.
Sen. 3-5 comm Reps. 1-2
Types of Committees
Partisan Makeup
NEgotiated every Congress based on margin 1.3:1 to 2:1
more important committees have largest margins
Johnson Rule
LBJ rule that junior sens get 1 good before a senior gets a 2nd good
Chair Procedure
originally party leader control till canon revolt in 1910
Now seniority mostly
Senate:inviolate w. bidding
house:dems confim vote
reps 1994 term limits (bad idea caused retirements)
smaller more specialized
congressional receptor for the iron triangle
Subcommittee Bill of Rights
1973 by House Dems
written jurisdictions
right to bid for membership and chairs
Unhappy with Committee Assignments?
request transfer at beginning of new session
classes of comm:prestige, policy, consts, undesired
HOUSE Committee Values (Grosewart Scores)
Ways and Means, Appropriations, Rules, Energy, Armed Services, For Affairs, Budget
Purposes of Hearings
Civics Book information gathering is only part of story. Symbolism, Rarely change members minds, Show
Republican Revoltion and Committees
3 Comms Eliminated
Staff cut 1/3
limits on subcommittees
sub staff controlled by comm chair
ban proxy voting
publish all votes on bills and amends
Distributive Theories
Agenda Setting
Gate Keeping
Structure induced quilibrium
Credit Claiming (mayhew)
Take it or Leave it nature-logrolling
PROBLEMS-ways around comms and gatekeeping, amend opportunities
Informational View
Provide info to the floor
Interested members on topics
Partisan Perspectives
Conditional party govt-mcs only delegate to leadership when they are homogeneous
SBC Bill of Rights-Prevent chairs from blocking bills
Rules Comm-Arm of leadership
Bypass Committees
All point against two theories
Responsible Party Govt
policy committments to ehte electorate by unified candidates..ability to implement (unified)...strong opposition for accountability...partisan to provide meaningful choices
Party Cartels (Cox and McCubbins
Name brand-benefit of shared name and solve collective action problems of legislation
Party Cartels-cartel rules and leadership use institution advantage to hold power of their members
Conditional Part Govt
party polarization is necessary from strong leadership(homo in, hetero out)
Party polarization incentivizes MC's to give leaders power
Preference based Theory
median voter is whats important, parties dont provide understanding to congress
HOWEVER- Downs argues parties make policy to win elections therefore med voter is voting for the party anyways
Chiat argument is that bip is worthless as a term and doesnt indicate level of functioning govt
delay- partisanship is good govt
Historical Evolution of Parties
Party Ticket->party centered elections->reforms->candidate driven elections
Duverger's Law
SMPD law that 2 parties will emerge dominant given median voter theorem

promote 2 party system, 3rd parties cant get into office and when they do have to caucus with 1 of 2 for power.
House Leadership
Speaker is Const. Mandated.
Effort for Regional Balance in system (austin,boston)
Extensive Whip System
Senate Leadership
Pres Pro Tem and VP are mandated but largely ceremonial
like herding cats
Leadership Responsibilities
organize chamer
consult w other branches
Measures of Party Strength
Party voting 50 d v 50 r
cohension 80/20=60
party unity
Leadership Tools
sanctions, rewards
The agenda- Hastert rule=no vote on the floor that would divide the party
6 Levels of influence on Members
1. Constituency (hard to discern filter thru heirarchy
2.member preferences
3. party
4.commitee membership
5.interest groups
6. president(if same party)
FENNO's Member Goals
Power w/in institution
Kingdon's Model of Consensus and Roll Call Voting
cue taking and field of forces
salience of the issue, position of actors
Role of Deliberation (quirk)
policy legitimacy, public educaiton, intelligent decision making
Two Types of Bargaining
non negotiated-unilateral action(leadership) or anticipated reaction
Negotiated-logrolling, time logrolling, compromise, side payments
Collective Dilemma in Congress
institutional dilemma-FEC reporting
Policy Dilemma-trans bill and bridge to nowhere
Keystone Argument
Constituent services get members elected therefore incentive for bad buraeucracy to increase the deman for their services
Fiorina Complaint
National debate is dominated by the 10% of extremists on either side not over attentiveness that is the keystone argument
Home Style
one on one presentation
independence, issue focused, leadership
easier to defend a diffucult vote than a flip flop
Trust in Member depends on home styl
share characteristics with constituents given more leeway
mc background gives trust in different areas
CAGW definition or in the eye of the beholder
number of earmarks 4155 in 1994, 15268 in 2005 (real $ value is the same)
rewards special interests over tax payer
currency of corruption
corrupts competitive market
entrenches incumbants
budget defecits
waste to some is essential to others
grease in leg process
1% of fed budget
geography- is bigger determinant of constituent interests than mere pork
interest groups-link to constituency makes the appeal stronger
Public Opinion and Salience
Pork is smaller % of budget today
The Courts and the Constitution
no req for fed bench->president has discretion in appts. but great difficulty in shaping courts bc judges change though 90% have shared party with president

Senate=advice and consent...consent clear advice not
Senate Confirmation History
advice part not clear (screen, provide names??)
28 nominees rejected only 2 bc of qualifications the other 26 for politics (bork)
Nuclear Option
arose from increase in senate role in lower court appointments courtesy->rejection and filibuster
so...Gang of 14 agreed to rules of fillibusters for such occasions
Marbury v Madison
judicial review->.25% struck down
some argue it wasnt the landmark case it is made out to be..not until late 19th c. that SC cited it
Supreme Court vs. Other Branches
it has neither the purse nor the sword->strongest when unanimous
SC stay out of political disputes
2 Views of Executive Power
Neustadt:power to persuade, pres as a clerk
Locke-Prerogative power, action in the absence of specific authorization
Power to persuade: rarely lead thru command rather have to persuade this power is based on->
Professional Reputation, Public Prestige
Public Opinion Trends President
declining support after honeymoon (clinton Ike excpetions
Cong vs. President Outcomes
Congressional Opposition (either one can be dominant)
Compromise-both give up something
Consensus-agree on policy
flight-anticipate a battle so move around congress (executive order or go public)
The Two Presidencies
Foreign-pres granted deference though reduced in last 30 years by intermestic issues
War Powers
Congress-declare War, raise monies armies
Pres-comm in chief
Strong Pres Interpretation-change from make war to declare grants president leeway, separate power of purse from power of sword
Use of Force
5 congressionally authorized wars
unauthorized are many
Presidential Prerogative Power in War
Lincoln-bypassed congress in civil war
Roosevelt-initial threats of bypassing
US v Curtis Wright
support from presidential initiative after court upheld presidential embargo of paraguay and uraguay
Korematsu v US
court upheld internment of japanese as valid exercise of military discretion
Youngstown Sheet and Tube v Sawyer
court rules Truman cannot nationalize steel mills.
no unlimited emergency prerogative even in wartime
War Powers Act
reaction to vietnam and nixons expansion into cambodia despite congressional restriction
-requires pres to consult in every possible instance with congress before sending in troops
-limits use of troops to 60 days 30 mroe with ext unless congress approves
-it has had no effect on power of pres
Signing Statements
pronoucements issued by pres when signing a law to
1.provide presidents interpretation of the law
2.announce constitutional limits
3.directions to exec branch on implementation
W=435 in first term more than all others combined
Public Trust in Congress
Hibbing distinguishes btwn the body and ones individual member. trust individual you know but not the whole