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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phonology
the study of sound system or sound pattern
Morphology
the study of word formation
Morpheme
Smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function.
Historical linguistics
the study of language change over time
Semantics
The study of linguistic meaning.
Idiolect
An individual's particular variety of speaking.
Dialect
A variation of a language that is mutually intelligible with other varieties.
Conversions
New words that are formed by taking a verb and creating a noun.
Jargon
Vocabulary words that are usually only used in specific vocations.
Dialect continuum
a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater.
Isogloss
A line drawn on a dialect map marking the boundary of an area where a particular linguistic feature is found.
Blend
In speech production, a production error in which two words "fuse" into a single item. In language change, a new word is created by combining the parts of two different words, usually the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Sociolect
Dialect associated with a particular social or economic class.
Phonetics
the study of speech sounds
Syntax
the study of sentence formation or grammar
Pragmatics
the study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on the context in which it is used
Applied Linguistics
application of linguistics to language teaching and learning
Anthropological linguistics
the study of relationship between language and culture
Sociolinguistics
the study of relationship between language and social structure
Neurolinguistics
the study of relationship between language and brain
Psycholinguistics
the study of relationship between language and cognitive structures
Genderlect
dialect spoken by different gender
linguistic diversity
geographical isolation, social stratification
Genderlect
dialect spoken by different gender
linguistic diversity
geographical isolation, social stratification
Example of compounding
freeway
Example of clipping
math
Example of blending
brunch
Example of Acronym
NASA (forms a pronounceable word)
Abbreviation
Example of Initialism
USA (doesn't form a pronounceable word.. we say U.S.A.) Abbreviation
Example of Coinage
Kleenex (words that are created "out of thin air")
Example of conversion
walk (started out as a verb- to walk, can be used as a noun- to go for a walk)
Example of eponymy
Washington D.C.
Words (often places, inventions, activities, etc.) that are named for persons somehow connected with them.
Example of back formation
orientate (comes from the noun orientation- creates a new base form)
Characteristics of human languages
1. Creativity
2. Arbitrariness
3. Non-biological basis of variation
4. Productivity
5. Complexity/ systematicity
What kinds of variations are found in dialects?
1. Phonetic variation
2. Vocabulary variation
3. Syntactic variation
4. Morphological variation
5. Semantic variation
What are three different ways that languages may be different from each other?
1. Accent
2. Morphology
3. Syntax
Prescriptive Grammar
Prescribing normative rules of language
Descriptive Grammar
Describes how language is used in context
Argot
Vocabulary of socially stigmatized groups (drug users lingo for example)
Taboo
Socially prohibited vocabulary ("shit" is inappropriate to say in some settings)