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15 Cards in this Set

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Effects of age timing of poverty
Affects child outcomes at 0-8 years more than later. Affects are more profound in terms o cognitive development, academic progress, and adult employment.
Effects of duration of poverty
Chronic poverty reduces IQ by 3/4 of standard deviation (from 100 to 85)
Pre-post PRWORA changes in:
child poverty rates, TANF caseloads, workparents in poverty, shifts in the economy:
1996-2000
1996-2000: Strong economy; reduced caseloads by 50%, 17& less poverty for kids
Pre-post PRWORA changes in:
child poverty rates, TANF caseloads, workparents in poverty, shifts in the economy: 2002-2003
Recession; kids in poverty up 5-10%; working parents in poverty up 34-42%
Weakness of quasi-experimental/time series approaches
Cannot omit third variables
Random assignment
Omits third variables by theoretically distributing them uniformly across all groups
Early studies (1960s-70s)
Randomly assigned families to welfare, or other modest income supplements
Early studies (1960s-70s) effects
Spent more money on better housing; enhanced child outcomes; increased child high school graduation rates; increased child's highest education level attained
Early Studies (1960s-70s) Limitations
Effects were small and inconsistent across studies; participants knew about the study ad which group they were in; limited child outcome measures
Later Studies (1980s-90s)- precursor to and basis for TANF
Added work requirements, wage supplements, can go above ?
Later Studies (1980s-90s)- precursor to and basis for TANF- Short-term and long-term effects
Better social/behavioral adjustment; better academic achievement; higher child-reported academic motivation
Central Question: Is the source of income important for child development, or is it just sufficient income regardless of its source?
Compile data for possible essay question.
Arguments about the effects of "welfare" of old AFDC program
1. Out of mainstream self-sufficiency
2. Children lack positive models and exposed to welfare sustaining models
3. Reduced expectations for children- education and work
4. Negatively viewed by others
5. Have more children even if they cannot be supported?
What do the data say about the effects of welfare on old AFDC programs?
1. The source of income is not too important- during childhood only income matters, regardless of the source
2. Depends on the age of the child- source becomes important during adolescence and later adulthood
3. Source does impact adult adjustment and life choices- welfare kid recipients more likely to bear children as teens, go on public assistance
Summary: Longitudinal and Experimental Studies of Poverty- Children leading to PRWORA
1. Absolute family income makes a difference on child outcomes, especially early on whether cash or non-cash, work or monetary transfers
2. Persisting, depp poverty has pervasive and long-lasting negative effects in terms of self-suffiency
3. Non-contingent cash tranfers (AFDC) may have negative effects
4. Resources in addition to income are needed to promote good child outcomes- Increased income does NOT insure adequate child rearing and quality of parenting and child care.
5. Adequate or better income does NOT insure adequate child rearing
6. Measuring parenting: HOME environment scale; some findings?