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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
doctrine that a person's experience is primary
existentialism
doctrine that the needs and values of human beings take precedence over material things and, further, that people cannot be studied simply as part of the material world
humanism
radical change in a scientific field
paradigm shift
description of a person's conscious experience in terms meaningful for that individual
phenomenology
scientific study of what goes right in life (experiences, traits, relationships, institutions)
positive psychology
inherent tendency of people to make the most of their potential
self-actualization
after repeated exposure to the same emotion-producing stimulus, the tendency to experience less of the emotion
adaptation
theory that positive emotions broaden psychological and behavioral repertoires and build psychological resources
broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson)
positive subjective experience more conspicuous in its absence than its presence
comfort
tendency of people in thinking about an emotional event to overlook how long it lasts
duration neglect
psychological state defined by subjective feelings but also characteristic patterns of physiological arousal, thoughts, and behaviors
emotion
tendency to like objects given to us, even if we did not especially want or value them in the first place
endowment effect
psychological state that accompanies highly engaging activities
flow
ability to experience positive feelings
hedonic capacity
continual adaptation to emotional circumstances, resulting in an ongoing return to a point of relative neutrality
hedonic treadmill
proportion of variation in a characteristic due to genetic factors; roughly, "influenced by genetics" as opposed to "inherited"
heritability
undertaking of activities because of their own appeal and not because of external rewards or punishments
intrinsic motivation
tendency to like objects to which we are frequently exposed, even if this exposure takes place subliminally
mere exposure effect
general emotional state of an individual
mood
theory of how emotional experiences are remembered, as a joint function of their greatest intensity and how they end
peak-end theory
positive subjective experience (guilt often attached)
pleasure
extent to which an individual habitually experiences positive moods like joy, interest, and alertness
positive affectivity
awareness of pleasure and deliberate attempts to make it last
savoring
quantitative index of the degree to which two variables, if graphed, fall along a straight line
correlation coefficient (r)
theory proposing that depressed people see the world more accurately
depressive realism
theory that happiness is a matter of getting what one wants, whether or not it involves pleasure
desire theory
involvement in activities that produce flow
engagement
idea that true happiness entails identifying one's inner self (demon), cultivating one's strengths and virtues, and living in accordance with them
eudaimonia
research method that uses an electronic beeper to signal research participants at random intervals, indicating that they should stop whatever they are doing, describe it, and respond to questions
experience sampling method (ESM)
everyday synonym for subjective well-being, life satisfaction, and the like
happiness
foolproof measure, like for a disease
hard diagnostic test
doctrine emphasizing the maximizing of pleasure and the minimizing of pain
hedonism
degree to which different measures of the same notion yield answers that agree
internal consistency (reliability)
overall cognitive appraisal that one's life is a good one
life satisfaction
theory that happiness entails achieving objectively good things in the world, e.g., freedom from disease, material, material comfort, a career, friendships, children, education, knowledge, and so on
objective list theory
overarching term for the emotions, experiences, appraisals, expectations, and accomplishments that figure into the good life
quality of life
genetically determined level of happiness, to which one returns after positive or negative emotional experiences
set-point (for happiness)
degree to which a measure administered at different points in time yields answers that agree
stability (test-retest reliability)
relatively high levels of positive affect, relatively low levels of negative affect, and the overall judgment that one's life is a good one
subjective well-being
unmeasured factors that produce apparent but spurious associations between two variables
third variables
degree to which a measure actually ascertains what it purports to measure
validity
winning at whatever matters most
victory
expectations about highly general--even vague--positive outcomes
big optimism
thoughts of which we are aware at any moment as well as all of the processes that underlie our thoughts
cognition
field that studies how people acquire, retain, transform, and use knowledge
cognitive psychology
1960s return to prominence within psychology of cognition
cognitive revolution
awareness of one's current environment and mental life; particular sensations, perceptions, needs, emotions, and thoughts
consciousness
global expectation that good things will be plentiful in the future and bad things scarce
dispositional optimism
tendency to believe that different events have the same sorts of causes
explanatory style
determination that goals can be achieved coupled with beliefs that successful plans can be generated to reach goals
hope
expectations about specific positive outcomes
little optimism
mood or attitude associated with the expectation of a desirable, advantageous, or pleasurable future
optimism
pervasive positive selectivity in thought
Pollyanna Principle
positive traits; individual differences such as curiosity, kindness, and gratitude
character strengths
depiction of concepts around a circle according to their relative similarity or dissimilarity
circumplex model
positive traits entailing the exercise of will to accomplish goals in the face of opposition, external or internal
strengths of courage
positive traits manifest in caring relationships with others
strengths of humanity
broadly social positive traits relevant to the optimal interaction between the individual and the group or the community
strengths of justice
positive traits that a person owns, celebrates, and frequently exercises
signature strengths
technique for identifying the 24 strengths in the VIA Classification from spoken or written text
strengths content analysis
positive traits that protect us from excess
strengths of temperance
positive traits that allow individuals to forge connections to the larger universe and thereby provide meaning to their lives
strengths of transcendence
classification of 24 positive traits
VIA Classification of Character Strengths
self-report survey for adults that measures the 24 strengths in the VIA Classification
VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS)
self-report survey for youth that measures the 24 strengths in the VIA Classification
VIA Inventory of Strengths for Youth (VIA-Youth)
interview for determining which of the 24 strengths in the VIA Classification qualify as individual signature strengths
VIA Structured Interview
positive traits related to the acquisition and use of information in the service of the good life
strengths of wisdom and knowledge
favorable or unfavorable evaluation of a specific object or issue
attitude
bunching up of scores at the upper end of a rating scale
ceiling effect
sample of research participants chosen for a study because they are readily available
convenience sample
changes in a society over time as young people come of age under different circumstances than did their parents or grandparents
generational replacement
arrangement of human motives into a hierarchy reflecting the order in which people typically attend to them
hierarchy of needs
belief about ideal modes of conduct that presumably aid and abet terminal values
instrumental value
measurement in which comparisons are made only with respect to the same individual
ipsative scores
individual who typically chooses the "best" option in order to optimize an outcome
maximizer
values minimally necessary for a viable society
minimalist values
emulation of what powerful or respected others say, do, and believe
modeling
biological motive that moves us to behave in ways to satisfy it, e.g., hunger, thirst
need
shared belief that one should act in a certain way in a certain circumstance
norm
sample of research participants that resembles the larger population to which a researcher wishes to generalize
representative sample
individual who typically chooses a good-enough or merely satisfactory option
satisficer
values corresponding to one's need to express talents, capacities, and potentialities
self-expressive values
values corresponding to one's pressing biological needs
survival values
belief about an ideal state of existence
terminal value
disposition to think, feel, and act in a consistent way
trait
goal about what is morally desirable
value
deliberate strategy of changing one's values by exposing them to contradiction among one's value priorities
value self-confrontation
self-help techniques for helping people to identify values they hold
values clarification
ongoing research project that periodically ascertains the values of people in dozens of countries around the world
World Values Survey
routes to happiness
pleasure (hedonism), engagement (flow), meaning (eudaimonia), good social relationships
subjective well-being
high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction
(Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale)
valid measures of social science
internally consistent, stable across time, hard measures, construct validity
positive emotions lead to
creativity, productivity, tolerance (broaden)
less physiological effect of stress, achieving more in life (build)
measures of optimism
Life Orientation Test (LOT), Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE)
positive consequences of optimism
less depression and anxiety and PTSD, happiness and life satisfaction, problem-focused coping, academic success, vocational success, morbidity and mortality, athletic success, political success, stock market performance, US Gross National Product
negative consequences of optimism
risk perception, defensive pessimism