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146 Cards in this Set

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Question
Answer
The _______ fracture occurs when the eye is struck in the front causing a fracture in the floor of the orbit.
blow-out fracture
The Water's view demonstrates what (as far as facial bones are concerned)?
the depressed fractures of the nasal wings
This projection is used to demonstrate fractures of the diseased processes an exam of facial bones, nasal bones, orbits and paranasal sinus?
Waters
exams of the facial bones, orbits and sinuses use the blank projection for demonstration of fractures and diseased processes
Caldwell
the blank is the rigged bone above the orbit
supra-orbital margin
true or false: the vomer is the trianglar bone that forms the inferior posterior portion of the bony nasal septum
true
What structures pass through the superior orbital fissure?
cranial nerves 3-6
a pediatric patient enters radiology for a paranasal sinus series; b/c of her age the child is unable to hold still for the projections even with the use of immobilization devices, the decision is to hold the child during each exposure. Which of the following individuals should be asked to hold the child?
guardian
the most common radiographic sign for secondary osteomelytis of the paranasal sinuses is?
erosion of bony margin
The pathway of communication b/w the frontal, maxiallary and ethmoid sinuses that provides drainage b/w them is termed?
osteomeatal complex
a patient comes to radiology or a sinus series and is unable to stand or sit erect for any of the projections; which of the following projections would best detect any of the air-fluid levels present in the maxillary sinus? PA, Parieotalcanthial, or horizontal beam lateral?
horizontal beam lateral
the radiograph of the open-mouth Waters position reveals that the mouth is open but the sphenoid sinuses are superimposed over the maxilla and upper teeth; what position error occurred?
insufficient extension of the head and neck
A radiograph of the SMV projection reveals that the mandible is superimposed over the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses; which of the following modifications will eliminate this problem?
increase extension of the head and neck
The radiograph for a PA projection of the sinuses reveals that the pretrous ridges are projected over the ethmoid sinuses; which of the following modifications will eliminate the superimposition while not compromising diagnostic quality?
increase extension of head and neck slightly
a radiograph of the waters projection reveals that the petrous ridges are superimposed over the lower 30% of the maxiallary sinuses; what specific positioning error, if any, led to this radiographic finding?
insufficient extension
which sinuses are projected through the oral cavity with the parietalacanthial trans-oral projection?
sphenoid
Which positioning line is perpendicular to the image receptor for parietalacanthion (Water’s) projection?
MML
Which sinuses are best demonstrated with the parietalacanthion projection?
maxiallary
Which sinuses are best demonstrated with a PA projection?
frontal and ethmoid
Where is the CR centered for the lateral projection of the sinuses?
midway b/w the EAM and outer canthus
Along with the use of erect positions, what other technical factor is important to demonstrate air-fluid levels in the paranasal sinuses? small focal spot, horizontal xray beam, or use of medium kv
horizontal xray beam
true or false: optic foramen studies are routinely taken as bi-lateral projections
true
The proper name for the parietal-orbital projection is?
Rheese view
Which positioning line is place perpendicular to the image receptor for the parietal orbital projection of the optic foramina?
AML
what is the angle b/w the MSP and IR for the parietalorbital projection of the optic foramen
53 degrees
Which projection best demonstrates the floor of the orbits?
modified waters
Which positioning line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the parietalacanthion projection?
MML
true or false: infections involving the upper teeth may involve the frontal sinuses?
false
true or false: all of the sinuses intercommunicate with each other with the nasal cavity
true
which sinus often produces an air fluid-level indicating a basilar skull fracture?
sphenoid
what is the only paranasal sinus not contained within a cranial bone?
maxillary
The term antrum of hymor refers to which sinus?
Maxillary
how many facial bones make up the bony orbit?
four
how many orbital bones total?
seven
the posterior aspect of the orbit is termed?
apex of the cone
The upper and lower teeth are embedded in the?
aveolar processes
Which 2 bones form the nasal septum?
ethmoid and vomer
Which of the following terms describes the junction of the 2 nasal bones?
nasion
Which of the following structures are described as scroll like projections found in the nasal cavity
Nasal conchae
What type of joint is the TMJ?
Synovial hinge and gliding
Know the anatomy of the facial bones
Know the positioning lines
What is the small bone located at the base of the tongue called?
hyoid
What is the largest, most dense bone of the face?
mandible
Which of these bones is not a facial bone? Zygomatic bones, mandible, maxilla or ethmoid
Ethmoid
The zygomatic arches are part of which bone? Frontal, Parietal or Temporal?
Temporal
Which of the following projections demonstrate the condyle and neck of the mandible? A) Axiolateral B) Axiolateral oblique C)AP Axial
Axiolateral oblique
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible, how is the head postioned to demonstrate the ramus of the mandible?
True lateral
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible, how is the head postioned to demonstrate the symphysis of the mandible?
45 degrees toward the IR
The axiolateral oblique projection is used to demonstrate the mandible, how is the head postioned to demonstrate the body of the mandible?
30 degrees toward the IR
How do you position the head to demonstrate the ramus of the mandible?
True lateral
Which reference line is placed perpendicular to the IR in the PA and PA axial of the mandibular rami?
OML
At which level will the CR be placed for the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch?
1 inch posterior to the outer canthi
At which level will the CR be place for the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches?
1 inch posterior to the outer canthi
Which line is placed nearly parallel (as possible) to IR for the SMV projection of the zygomatic arch?
IOML
Where is the CR centered for a lateral projection of the facial bones?
halfway between the outer canthus and the EAM
Which part of the patients face is touching the bucky for the Waters position?
Chin
What is the CR angulation for the axiolateral oblique projection for the TMJ?
15 degrees
Which of the following lines is placed parallel to the transverse axis of the IR for the axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJ? A)glabella meatal B) orbital meatal C) acanthion meatal D) mental meatal
acanthiomeatal
The midsaggital plane of the head is rotated how many degrees for the axiolateral oblique projection of the TMJ?
15 degrees toward the IR
What is the CR angulation for the AP axial projection of the TMJ?
35 degrees caudad
Which line is placed perpendicular to the IR for AP axial projection of the TMJ articulation?
OML
Several methods are available to perform the axiolateral oblique projection of the mandible to demonstrate the symphysis, body or ramus – what is the central ray angulation for all of these projections?
25 degrees cephalic
What is the CR angulation for PA axial projection of the mandibular rami?
20-25 degrees cephalic
Which of the following projections will clearly demonstrate any medial or lateral displacements or fractures of the mandibular rami? A)PA B) PA axial C) Axiolateral oblique D) what combination
PA and PA axial
Which of the following is centered to IR for the PA projection of the mandibular rami? A) mental point B)Glabella C). nasion D) tip of the nose
tip of the nose
What is the CR angulation for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches?
30 degrees caudad
Where is the IR centered for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches?
Central ray
Which line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the AP axial projection of the zygomatic arches? A) OML B) Mental meatal C) acanthiomeatal D) IOML C) Central Ray
OML
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch the CR is directed perpendicular to which line?
IOML
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arch the top of the head is tilted how many degrees?
15 degrees away from the side that is being examined
For the tangential projection of the zygomatic arches the head of (something I can't understand) midsaggital plane is how many degrees in what direction?
15 degrees toward side being examined
Both zygomatic arches can be demonstrated on one projection for which of the following projections? A) Tangential B) SMV C) AP axial D) what combo
SMV and AP axial
For the SMV projection of the zygomatic arches the CR directed perpendicular to what line?
IOML
Which of the following is true regarding the lateral projection of the nasal bones: 1. the occlusal IR may be used 2. both sides are done for comparison 3. the interpupillary line is perpendicular to the table top 4. what combo
all of the above
Trauma patients may arrive in Rad department with their head immobilized, a reverse Waters can be done by adjusting the CR to be parallel to what line?
mentomeatal line
The CR angulation of the reverse Waters is how many degrees?
0 degrees
Which of the following is placed perpendicular to the IR for the acanthiomeatal projection or the reverse Waters of the facial bones?
MML
The waters method of the facial bones is modified so that there is less angulation of the facial bones, for this modification the OML is adjusted how many degrees?
55 degrees
Which facial bones are clearly demonstrated on the Waters method? A) zygomatic arches B) maxilla C) orbits D) what combo
all of the above
Which of the following is centered to the IR for the pariatoacanthio projection (Waters projection) of the facial bones?
acanthion
Which of the following is true regarding the positioning for the Waters method: 1. The OML forms a 37 degree angle with the plane of the IR 2. The MML is perpendicular to the plane of the IR 3. The coronal plane is perpendicular to the IR 4. what combo
1 & 2 The OML forms a 37 degree angle with the plane of the IR and the MML is perpendicular to the IR
For the Waters method the OML is placed at what angle to the IR?
37 degrees
The lateral projection of the facial bones clearly demonstrates the: A) petrous ridge B) all facial bones in their entirety C) petromastoid portion D) maxilla
all facial bones in their entirety
Which of the following is placed parallel to the transverse axis of the IR for the lateral projection of the facial bones?
IOML
For the lateral projection of the facial bones the IR is centered to the what? A) acanthion B) nasion C) zygomatic bone D) glabella
zygomatic bone
For the optimal image of the mastoid process which of the following should occur: 1. use a 0.6 mm focal spot or less 2. use a high resolution screen 3. use smallest possible film size
All of the above
Which of the following are demonstrated on the AP axial (Towns) method projection of the skull: 1. petrous pyramids 2. Occipital bone 3. posterior portion of the foramen magnum
All of the above
Which of parts of the patient's face touch the table for a PA axial projection of the Caldwell?
forehead and nose
The base of the temporal bone contains an opening which the internal coratid artery passes...
the foramen lacerum
the thickest and densest bone in the cranium is what?
petrous portion of the temporal bone
The base of the anterior portion of the occipital bone contains 2 large openings that allow blood vessels and nerves to pass through are called
jugular foreman
larger aperture in the occipital bone through which the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord are termed the
foramen magnum
the posterior half of the base of the skull is composed of which bone
occipital
Know anatomy of skull
point out on pics
the superior aspect of the sphenoid bone contains a deep compression that contains the?
pituitary gland
The six areas of incomplete ossification of an newborn infants skull
fontanels
the suture located between the occipital bone and the parietal bone is the?
lambdoidal suture
which of the following bones are contained in the calvarium: 1. frontal 2. paritiel 3. temporal
frontal & paritial Calvarium = skull cap
which of the following bones is contained the floor of the cranium 1. ethmoid 2. sphenoid 3. temporal
All 3
the bones of the cranium are joined together by fibrous joints called
sutures
how many bones are in the skull
22
which of the following are clearly demonstrated on the SMV projection of the cranial base 1. Mastoid process 2. sphenoid process 3. coratid canals
all 3
for an SMV projection of the cranial base the CR should always be perpendicular to what positioning line
IOML
what is the CR angulation for the SMV projection?
0 - zero
Radiographic demonstration of the cranial base is performed by what method?
Shuller’s Method
Which line should be parallel to the plane of the IR for the SMV projection of the cranial base?
IOML- infraorbital meatal line
What is the average CR angulation for the PA axial projection of the skull for the Haas method?
25 degress cephalic
Which of the following is clearly demonstrated within the foreaman magnum during the AP axial of the skull? Dorsum Sellae, Sella Turcica, posterior clinoid processes
Dorsum Sellae AND Posterior Clinoid Processes
Which of the following lines is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the AP axial projection?
OML Orbital Meatal line
If the patient cannot flex the neck to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for an AP axial projection which line should be placed perpendicular?
IOML
When would you use a caudal angulation of 37 degrees?
Townes
Often the patient cannot be placed in the prone position for a PA axial projection of the skull what CR angle can be used if an AP axial projection is done instead?
15 cephalic
Which of the following is perpendicular to the plane of the IR for the Caldwell projection of the skull?
OML
The CR angle for the PA axial or Caldwell projection of the skull is?
15 degrees caudal
What method will demonstrate the petrous ridges in the orbits, the ethmoid and frontal sinus, and the crista galla?
Caldwell
Which of the following will be superimposed in the lateral projection of the skull? Orbital roofs EAM temporal mandibular joints, or what combo?
All of the Above
Which of the following is true regarding lateral projections of the skull? 1. Midsaggital plane of the head is parallel to the plane of the IR 2.Interpupillary line is perpendicular to the IR 3. The mento meatal line is parallel with the bottom edge of the IR
1 and 2
The CR and center of the IR position for a lateral projection of the skull is?
2 inches above the EAM external acoustic meatus
Which plane of the head is placed parallel to the IR for a lateral projection of the skull?
midsaggital
In a typical shaped head the petrous pyramids project anteriorly and medially at what angle?
47 degrees
Dolichocephalic is what skull shape?
Narrow from side to side
Which skull type is considered average?
Mesocephalic
Know positioning lines and positioning points
in book page 300. and he gave us a handout
Where are the semi-circular canals located?
Internal ear
The vestibule cochlear organ is the organ of?
hearing and balance
The petromastoid portion is a part of which bone? Ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital or temporal
temporal
Which bone in the skull contains the auditory organs and organs of hearing?
temporal bone
Which bone has condyles that articulate with the atlas of the cervical spine?
Occipital
Once again he reminds us to know the anatomy of the skull.
pg. 277-297
Which skull suture is located between the parietal bones?
sagittal
Which suture is between the frontal and parietal bones?
coronal
Which is not a facial bone? maxilla ethmoid mandible zygomatic
ethmoid
Which is not a bone of the cranium? frontal maxilla spheniod occipital
maxilla
The cranial bones original join together by articualtions called?
sutures
How many bones make up the face?
14
How many bones are in the cranium?
8