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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In examining our fundamental national values we must determine...
1. When it is appropriate for us to promote democracies in other countries
2. How other countries differ from ours.
To explore the reach of our own national identities we must...
1. Determine to what extent we are a nation of nationalities
2. Decide if we should attempt to understand our many sided cultural legacies by learning about countries of ancestral ties?
We must become familiar with a global era which requires knowledge of...
other societies, cultures, and political institutions.
What strategic move must be made?
To deal with the new era of global threats to US Security.
Comparative politics is...
The systematic study of patterns of authority across different societies and cultures
What is authority?
power, influence, compulsion exercised through institutions over individuals and groups
What is society?
the ways in which people organize themselves to facilitate interactions among them i.e. exchanging wealth, affection, assigning status and prestige, provide training to be willful and contributing members for the good of the whole.
What is culture?
values, principles, beliefs which hold a society togetherC
Comparative politics is also
1. An examination of different forms of government
2. A study of the principles underlying government authority
3. A study of citizens responses to government authority
4. A study of the conditions under which the rules of exercising government authority change and citizens’ adherence to that change.
What is a regime?
the term used to denote, simply, a way of organizing institutions of authority
What is a democratic regime?
1. a way of organizing institutions of authority in which opportunities for participating in those institutions are broad

2. in which those who exercise authority subject themselves periodically to accountability of citizens (through elections)
What is an authoritarian regime?
1. a way of organizing institutions of democracy in which an elite (a relatively small group) exercises authority over a country without regard to its direct accountability or due process of law

2.imposes controls over freedom of expression and ability of citizens to organize to make demands and compete for power through, i.e. interest groups and political parties. some cases authoritarian regimes have substantial support of the citizens under their authority. (i.e. Nazi party)
What is an illiberal (or hybrid) regime?
1. Countries in which certain features of democracy exists while others do not. Illiberal democracies for example have competitive and periodic elections and access to those in authority
they lack ability to varying degrees to guarantee and protect certain basic freedoms such as freedom from arbitrary arrest and police abuse, or denial or abridgment of freedom of religion or expression of cultural or ethnic freedom. (i.e. Russia)
What is the state? (according to Max Weber)
“The state is a network of institutions which possesses a monopoly over the legitimate
use of violence within a given territory.”
What can the state do?
punish, legally commit murder or take a life, send to jail, order restitution,
declare forms of behavior as unacceptable, force to pay taxes.
How do countries achieve this 'monopoly' of power?
when individuals voluntarily comply with the authority of the state.
What is legitimacy?
voluntary compliance by individuals to the authority of the state
What is patrimonial legitimacy?
voluntary compliance on basis of tradition, custom, or religious justification is the mandate of god is the way the ancestors have been ruled since the beginning of time. It is the custom which makes for a stable order in a society.
What is charismatic legitimacy?
compliance to the authority of an individual who embodies the aspirations of a people for national independence, for affirming a distinctive culture for promising to set right the wrongs of a given society.
What is legal/rational or constitutional legitimacy?
written rules about what a state can and can cannot do and institutions who apply these rules more or less impartially
What is a monopoly?
Only one set of institutions can compel to do something.
What do states do?
1. maintain armies and protect from outside threats

2. maintain their authority
What are the 5 basic functions of a state?
1. maintain order
2. adjudicate disputes
3. enlarge wealth
4. protect or rescue from natural disasters
5. protect borders from external threats
What is a unitary state?
where authority is concentrated or centralized in a single set of national instituitions.
What is a federal system?
-monopoly is broken down and shared between national and local institutions.
What is a consociational state?
major parties are given proportional share of all positions in state institutions divide between different religions or political parties.
What is ethnocentrism?
Making judgments about other cultures and societies on the supposition that one’s own cultural values are superior to others.
What is cultural relativism?
Asserting that judgments about other cultures and societies are invalid because cultures as such have their own unique moral logic and justifications.
What is an empirical statement?
-a statement of fact, i.e. an occurrence that can be verified by sensory observation and can be analyzed through logical means.
What is a normative statement?
-a statement of value preference related to an institutional arrangement or form of behavior
What are two propositions made by students of comparative politics?
-under democratic regimes, if there exist greater trust among citizens compared across democratic regimes, there will be greater voter turnout.

-under authoritarian regimes there exist lower rates of crime and disturbances of public order when religious elites give the regimes support and legitimacy
What are the 3 kinds of truth claims?
general laws, theories, and axioms.
What is the axiom for comparative politics?
-all states function in a manner to maintain and increase their democracy.
What happens if states fail to function in the manner aforestated?
They go into a fail state.
What is a fail state?
A failed state is a term used to denote a situation in which arrangements of authority in a given country are extremely weak or non-existent.
What are the conditions under a fail state?
*a high degree of lawlessness and criminality
-citizens do not feel safe performing ordinary daily tasks

*few opportunities for living a good life
-citizens flee the country because of scarce opportunities or having to face constant physical threats

*public services such as schools, hospitals, police protection, are in poor repair or are dilapidated and barely functioning

*The country is embroiled in violent or near violent and irreconcilable disputes among groups of citizens

*The country faces constant possibility of government overthrow or occupation
by a foreign power.
What are the factors that may explain fail states?
*Population Size
*Geographical Region
*Religious Heritage
*General Cultural or Historical factors
Who is Aristotle?
A Greek philosopher. Author of several classic works spanning a wide range of subjects
What were the two aspects in the study of politics that Aristotle came up with?
Typology of regime types

The proposition: the middle sectors are the foundation of democracies
What are the six types of regimes Aristotle (and the greek system) determined to exist?
Monarchy Dictatorship

Aristocracy Oligarchy

Democracy Demagogy
What question did Aristotle ask?
Which regime is preferred and for what reasons?
What was his answer?
Democracy, because it has less of a tendency towards mob rule because the citizenry have a stake in the democracy. Also democracy provides a buffer from demagogy called the middle sectors.
What two foundations yearly rank democracy?
Freedom House and The Economist Index of Democracy