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14 Cards in this Set

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Describe where isovolumetic relaxation occurs on the LV pressure-volume loop.
closure of the aortic valve to opening of the mitral valve
Describe where isovolumetic contraction occurs on the LV pressure-volume loop.
closure of the mitral valve to opening of the aortic valve.
Which is the more potent vasoconstr, angII or ADH?
ADH (vasopressin)
Describe the effect of hypercapnia on the cerebral vasculature and on the systemic vasculature.
Dilation in both cerebral and systemic vessels.
What Swan-Ganz catheter data suggest LV failure?
decreased CO and increased preload

PCWP>18mmHg
CI<2
What PCWP is indicative of heart failure?
greater than 18mmHg
List 5 compensatory responses in the pt with cardiac failure
1- increased LV preload
2- increased symp tone
3- activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldo system
4- release of AVP
5- ventricular hypertrophy
What monitoring is indicated for managing the pt with a history of CHF secondary to diastolic dysfxn?
CVP or PAC
Describe the MOA of Milrinone?
PDE inhibitor--> increased cAMP

In the heart--> increased cAMP increases inotropy
In the vessels--> decreaes SVR
What potential side effect occurs with inamrinone, but not with Milrinone?
Thrombocytopenia
Nitroprusside contains 5 cyanide ions (CN-) and may cause cyanide toxicity. What three rxns may cyanide ions undergo?
1- binding to MetHb to form cyanometbHb
2- rxn with thiosulfate--> thiocyanates
3- binding to tissue cytochrome oxidase, which interferes with tissue utilization of O2
How do cyanide ions interfere with oxygen utilization at tissue cytochrome oxidase?
prevents formation of ATP
List 4 signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity.
1- metabolic acidosis
2- cardiac arrhythmias
3- increased venous O2 due to tissue not utilizing O2
4- tachyphylaxis
What is your concern giving Phenytoin to the hyperglycemic pt?
Partially inhibits release of insulin