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25 Cards in this Set

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frequency of an allele =
f(homozygotes) + 1/2 f(heterozygotes)
polymorphism
genetic variation
anagenesis
phyletic evolution

speciation (new ones from an old)
cladogenesis
diversification
microevolution
evolution w/in a population
macroevolution
evolution in a large scale, ie mass extinction
population genetics
study of allele freq change in a population
phylogenetics / systematics
study of evolutionary changes b/w species
evolution
the replacement of alleles by others
genetic properties of populations
1) allele frequencies
2) genotypic frequencies
3) heterozygosity
3 points
frequency of an allele (method 2)
2(# homozygous obs.) + (#heterozygous obs.)
HWE - Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
expected frequencies:
p^2 AA
2pq Aa
q^2 aa
total = 1.0

p+q = 1
Chi-Square Test of HWE
(O-E)^2 / E

if 95 % certain, then X^2 = 3.84
Assumptions of HWE
-for autosomal loci in sexual, monoecious (hermaphroditic) diploids

-assumes random mating, no natural selection, no migration, no genetic drift, no mutation
-if yes, --> deviation
nonrandom mating
-indivs choose mates on basis of any heritable character
-most common cause of deviation
-interacts w/ natural selection & genetic drift
endogamy
indivs tend to mate in own subgroup (ie race),
-mating not random w/ respect to species as whole
-mating random w/ respect to subgroup
inbreeding
mating b/w relatives more common than by chance
-inbreeding depression of heterozygotes
ecological factors promoting local inbreeding:
-social behavior
-poor dispersal - ie acorns to tree
-patchy resources
enforced outbreeding / negative inbreeding
-mating b/w relatives less common than by chance
positive assortative mating
like x like

ie height, skin color
negative assortative mating
like x unlike
inbreeding vs assortative mating
-inbreeding applies to whole genome
-asst. mating applies to a particular phenotype
inbreeding coefficient F
more homozygosity by descent
systematic inbreeding
leads to complete homozygosity

ie 2 alleles --> 1 lost (f=0)
1 fixed (f=1)
Population genetic mechanisms:
(1-5)
1) Natural selection
2) Migration
3) Nonrandom mating
4) Finite N / genetic drift
5) Mutation