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127 Cards in this Set

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802.11 standard
A wireless standard established in 1997 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; also known as Wi-Fi (short for Wireless Fidelity), it enables wireless network devices to work seamlessly with other networks and devices.
antivirus software
Software that is specifically designed to detect viruses and protect a computer and files from harm.
backdoor program
Aprogram that enables a hacker to take complete control of a computer without the legitimate user's knowledge or permission.
black-hat hackers
Hackers who use their knowledge to destroy information or for illegal gain.
boot-sector viruses
Viruses that replicate themselves into the Master Boot Record of a floppy or hard drive.
client
A computer that requests information (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet).
client/server network
A network that consists of client and server computers, in which the clients make requests of the server and the server "serves up" the response.
coaxial cable
Asingle copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing.
computer network
Two or more computers that are connected by software and communications media so they can communicate.
computer virus
A computer program that attaches itself to another computer program (known as the host program) or pretends to be an innocuous program and attempts to spread itself to other computers when files are exchanged.
cybercrime
Any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer.
cybercriminals
Individuals who use computers, networks, and the Internet to perpetrate crime.
cyberterrorists
Terrorists who use computers to accomplish their goals.
data transfer rate (or throughput)
The speed at which a storage device transfers data to other computer components, expressed in kilobits per second (Kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps).
denial of service (DoS) attack
An attack that occurs when legitimate users are denied access to a computer system because a hacker is repeatedly making requests of that computer system to tie up its resources and deny legitimate users access.
device driver
Software that facilitates the communication between a device and the operating system.
distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks
Automated attacks that are launched from more than one zombie computer at the same time.
DSL/cable routers
Routers that are specifically designed to connect to Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable modems.
dynamic addressing
The process of assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses when users log on using their Internet service provider (ISP). The computer is assigned an address from an available pool of IP addresses, which is common today.
e-mail virus
A virus transmitted by e-mail that often uses the address book in the victim's e-mail system to distribute itself.
Ethernet networks
Networks that use the Ethernet protocol as the means (or standard) by which the nodes on the network communicate.
fiber-optic line (or cable)
Lines that transmit data at close to the speed of light along glass or plastic fibers.
firewalls
Software programs or hardware devices designed to prevent unauthorized access to computers or networks.
grid computing
A form of networking that enables linked computers to use idle processors of other networked computers.
hacker (or cracker)
Anyone who breaks into a computer system (whether an individual computer or a network) unlawfully.
home phoneline network adapter (also HPNA adapter)
A device that attaches to computers and peripherals on a phoneline network to enable them to communicate using phone lines.
hubs
Simple amplification devices that receive data packets and retransmit them to all nodes on the same network (not between different networks).
identity theft
Occurs when someone uses personal information about someone else (such as the victim's name, address, and social security number) to assume the victim's identity for the purpose of defrauding others.
Internet Protocol address (IP address)
The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other. It consists of a unique set of four numbers separated by dots, such as 123.45.678.91.
local area networks (LANs)
Networks in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area.
logic bombs
Computer viruses that run when a certain set of conditions is met, such as specific dates keyed off of the computer's internal clock.
logical port
A virtual communications gateway or path that enables a computer to organize requests for information (such as Web page downloads, e-mail routing, and so on) from other networks or computers.
logical port blocking
When a firewall is configured to ignore all incoming packets that request access to port 25 (the port designated for File Transfer Protocol [FTP] traffic), so no FTP requests will get through to the computer.
macro viruses
Viruses that are distributed by hiding them inside a macro.
macros
Small programs that group a series of commands to run as a single command.
Master Boot Record
Aprogram that runs whenever a computer boots up.
multipartite viruses
Literally meaning "multipart" viruses, this type of computer virus attempts to infect both the boot sector and executable files at the same time.
network adapters
Adapters that enable the computer (or peripheral) to communicate with the network using a common data communication language, or protocol.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
A process firewalls use to assign internal Internet Protocol (IP) addresses on a network.
network architecture
The design of a network.
network interface card (NIC)
An expansion (or adapter) card that enables a computer to connect with a network.
network navigation devices
Devices on a network such as routers, hubs, and switches that move data signals around the network.
network operating system (NOS)
Software that handles requests for information, Internet access, and the use of peripherals for the rest of the network nodes.
nodes
Devices connected to a network, such as a computer, a peripheral (such as a printer), or a communications device (such as a modem).
packet
A small segment of data that is bundled to be sent over transmission media. Each packet contains the address of the computer or peripheral device to which it is being sent.
packet filtering
Aprocess firewalls perform to filter out packets sent to specific logical ports.
packet sniffer
Aprogram that looks at (or sniffs) each data packet as it travels on the Internet.
peer-to-peer (P2P) network
A network in which each node connected to the network can communicate directly with every other node on the network.
personal firewalls
Firewalls specifically designed for home networks.
phoneline networks
Networks that use conventional phone lines to connect the nodes in a network.
polymorphic viruses
A virus that changes its virus signature (the binary pattern that makes the virus identifiable) every time it infects a new file. This makes it more difficult for antivirus programs to detect the virus.
powerline network
Network that uses the electrical wiring in a home to connect the nodes in the network.
powerline network adapter
An adapter that is attached to each computer or peripheral that is part of a powerline network.
repeaters
Devices that are installed on long cable runs to amplify a signal.
routers
Devices that route packets of data between two or more networks.
script kiddies
Amateur hackers without sophisticated computer skills; typically teenagers, who don't create programs used to hack into computer systems but instead use tools created by skilled hackers that enable unskilled novices to wreak the same havoc as professional hackers.
scripts
Lists of commands (miniprograms) that are executed on a computer without the user's knowledge.
server
A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
static addressing
Assigning an Internet Protocol (IP) address for a computer that never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator.
stealth viruses
Viruses that temporarily erase their code from the files where they reside and hide in the active memory of the computer.
transceiver
In a wireless network, a device that translates the electronic data that needs to be sent along the network into radio waves and then broadcasts these radio waves to other network nodes.
transmission media
The cable or wireless lines that transport data on a network.
Trojan horse
A computer program that appears to be something useful or desirable (such as a game or a screen saver), but at the same time does something malicious in the background without the user's knowledge.
twisted pair wiring (or twisted pair cable)
Telephone lines made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket.
unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable
The most popular transmission media option for Ethernet networks. UTP cable is composed of four pairs of wires that are twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference.
virus signatures
Signatures in files that are portions of the virus code that are unique to a particular computer virus.
white-hat hackers
Hackers who break into systems just for the challenge of it (and who don't wish to steal or wreak havoc on the systems). They tout themselves as experts who are performing a needed service for society by helping companies realize the vulnerabilities that exist in their systems.
wide area network (WAN)
A network made up of local area networks (LANs) connected over long distances.
wireless access point
A device similar to a hub in an Ethernet network. It takes the place of a wireless network adapter and helps to relay data between network nodes.
wireless DSL/cable router
A device that enables wireless and wired nodes to be connected to the same network.
wireless network
A network that uses radio waves instead of wires or cable as its transmission medium.
wireless network adapter
Devices that are required for each node on a wireless network for the node to be able to communicate with other nodes on the network.
worm
Aprogram that attempts to travel between systems through network connections to spread infections. Worms can run independently of host file execution and are active in spreading themselves.
zombies
Computers that are controlled by hackers who used a backdoor program to take control.
alphanumeric pagers
Devices that display numbers and text messages on their screens. Like numeric pagers, alphanumeric pagers do not allow the user to send messages.
analog-to-digital converter chip
Converts analog signals into digital signals.
base transceiver station
A large communications tower with antennas, amplifiers, and receivers/transmitters.
benchmarking
Aprocess used to measure performance in which two devices or systems run the same task and the times are compared.
BlueBoard
An application developed by Colligo Networks that enables a personal digital assistant (PDA) display to be used as a drawing board and be instantly connected with up to four other PDAs.
Bluetooth
Technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances.
cell phones
Telephones that operate over a wireless network. Cell phones can also offer Internet access, text messaging, personal information management (PIM) features, and more.
Compact Flash
Memory cards about the size of a matchbook that can hold between 64 megabytes (MB) and 1 gigabyte (GB) of data.
cradle
Connects a personal digital assistant (PDA) to a computer using either a universal serial bus (USB) port or a serial port.
digital ink
An extension of the text-entry systems used on personal digital assistant (PDA) devices.
digital pen
A device for drawing images and entering text in a tablet PC.
digital signal processor
A specialized chip that processes digital information and transmits signals very quickly.
docking station
Hardware for connecting a portable computing device to printers, scanners, full-size monitors, mice, and other peripherals.
flash memory
Portable, nonvolatile memory.
footprint
The amount of physical space on the desk a computer takes up.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A system of 21 satellites (plus three working spares), built and operated by the U.S. military, that constantly orbit the earth. They provide information to GPS-capable devices to pinpoint locations on the earth.
Graffiti
One of the more popular notation systems for entering data into a personal digital assistant (PDA).
hot-swappable bays
Bays that provide the ability to remove one drive and exchange it with another drive while the laptop computer is running.
laptop computer (or notebook computer)
A portable computer that offers a large display and all of the computing power of a full desktop system.
memory effect
The result of a battery needing to be completely used up before it is recharged or it won't hold as much charge as it originally did.
Memory Stick
Sony's brand of flash memory; the cards measure just 2 inches by 1 inch and weigh a fraction of an ounce.
microbrowser
Software that makes it possible to access the Internet from a cell phone or personal digital assistant (PDA).
mobile computing devices
Portable electronic tools such as cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and laptops.
mobile switching center
Acentral location that receives cell phone requests for service from a base station.
MP3 player
A small portable device for storing MP3 files (digital music).
multimedia cards (MMCs)
Thin, small, rugged cards used as portable memory that can hold up to 128 megabytes (MB) of data.
Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
An extension of Short Message Service (SMS) that enables messages that include text, sound, images, and video clips to be sent from a cell phone or PDA to other phones or e-mail addresses.
Napster
The most well-known file-exchange site for digital music. Peer-to-peer sharing technology previously allowed users to exchange files, rather than downloading from a public server. Napster was purchased, shut down, and then reopened for downloading music that a user purchases, in compliance with copyright provisions.
numeric pagers
Paging devices that display only numbers on their screens, telling the user that he or she has received a page and providing the number to call. Numeric pagers do not allow the user to send a response.
paging device (or pager)
A small wireless device that enables a user to receive and sometimes send numeric (and sometimes text) messages on a small display screen.
Palm OS
One of the two main operating systems for personal digital assistants (PDAs), made by 3Com.
PC cards (or PCMCIA, which stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
Credit card-sized cards that enable users to add fax modems, network connections, wireless adapters, USB 2.0 and FireWire ports, and other capabilities primarily to laptops.
peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing
The process of users transferring files between computers.
personal digital assistant (PDA)
A small device that enables a user to carry digital information. Often called palm computers or handhelds, PDAs are about the size of a hand and usually weigh less than 5 ounces.
Pocket PC (formerly Windows CE)
One of the two main operating systems for personal digital assistants (PDAs), made by Microsoft.
processor speed
The number of operations (or cycles) the processor completes each second, measured in hertz (Hz).
sampling rate
The number of times per second a signal is measured and converted to a digital value. Sampling rates are measured in kilobits per second.
Secure Digital
Anewer type of memory card that is faster and offers encryption capabilities so data is secure even if the user loses the card. The stamp-sized Secure Digital cards can hold up to 256 megabytes (MB) of data.
Short Message Service (SMS) (or text messaging)
Technology that enables short text messages (up to 160 characters) to be sent over mobile networks.
smart battery
Arechargeable lithium ion battery used in a personal digital assistant (PDA) that can report the number of minutes of battery life remaining.
SmartMedia
Atype of flash memory card that is especially thin and light. SmartMedia cards can hold up to 128 megabytes (MB) of data.
stylus
A device used to tap or write on touch-sensitive screens.
subnotebook computers
Portable computers that are smaller and weigh less than normal notebook computers. Usually, these feature smaller displays and keyboards.
Symbian OS
Apopular operating system for full-featured cell phones.
synchronizing
The process of updating data so the files on different systems are the same.
tablet PC
A portable computer that includes two special technologies: advanced handwriting recognition and speech recognition.
two-way pagers
Devices that support both receiving and sending text messages.
voice pager
Adevice that offers all the features of a numeric pager but also enables the user to receive voice messages.
Web clipping
Technology for extracting the information from a Web site and formatting it so it is more useful on smaller personal digital assistant (PDA) displays.
Web-enabled
The capability of a device, such as a desktop computer, laptop, or mobile device, to access the Internet.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
The standard that dictates how handheld devices will access information on the Internet.
wireless Internet service provider
Providers such as Verizon or T-Mobile that offer their subscribers wireless access to the Internet.
Wireless Markup Language (WML)
Aformat for writing content viewed on a cellular phone or personal digital assistant (PDA) that is text-based and contains no graphics.