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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-philosophy of social order that emerges in Europe in 16th & 17th enthuries.
-fundamentally, a tolerataion of diversity
-strong individuals, weak government
-notion of social order that stresses importance in the individual
-such emphasis on individual that strong govts. will prove to be a threat.
-not direct deomcracy
-1st political usage as 1769 (Burke)
-assumes a diversity of interests in society
-Ancient Greeks would not have accepted this
-Believed in natural order, great chain of being
-polis->basis for politics
basic question: How ought man to order his political life?
-answers-> ideally:communism(Plato):philosopher-King (Aristotle)
-Limited citizenship
Anceient Greeks
-materialist, pessimist, coward
-critic of Aristotle
-state of nature (state of war)
-govt. by consent
-govt. represents authority of people
Thomas Hobbes
-Link between Hobbes & American Revolution
- Rights in state of nature
-life, liberty, property
-if govt. threatens these, revolt
-govt. should protect interests
-not levithan, but umpire
John Locke
Birth of American Consitution
Aricles of Confedration and __________________
Perpetual Union
-practical necessity given geographic size
-facilitated by developing dverse interests
Representation #1 of the 7 principles
-ultimate autority rests with the people
-grew from the dislike of george III
-long colonial experience with popular rule
-restraints on popular rule too
Popular rule #2 of the 7 Principles
-doctrine is enshrined in constitution
-evolution affected by historical, political conditions
-constition divides power amoung national govt, state govt, and people
- national govt has 3 types of power
-Powers not delegated to the U.S. by Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
10th Amendment.
-Constitution leaves exact balance b//c states and nations vague
-ratified by states
-founders disagreed
Competing Terriories
-State govts and national govts are equal
-at the extreme... nullification, secession
-at least..seperate, indepenedent, "spheres"
Dual Federalism
-Focuses on supreme clause
-federal govt is supreme
-states are subordinate and should cooperate
cooperitive federalism
-believed in national supremacy
-federal judeges serve for life
-series of important supreme court decisions established federal supremacy
John Marshall
-national bank
-broad interpretation to necessary and proper
-interfering state laws invali8d
McCulloch v Maryland
-Supremem Court has final authority to rule on federal matters
-not state courts
Cohens c Virginia
-both wanted tax steamboat
-broad interpretation to interstate commerce
-gave congress great power over economy
Gibbons v Ogden
-corporation considered a person under the terms of the constitution
-therefore, corporations given constitional rights
-this will form basis for "substantive due process
Dartmoth v Woodward
-unintended consewuence of Hamiltonian tariffs... and westward expansion
-southerners believed in states rights
-intercession place states b/w national govt. and citizens)
Civil war
-worldwide economic collapse
-old political assumptions called into question
-old governmental structers paralized
great depression
-birth welfare systems
new deal
-problem with ratifying 14th amendment
-14th amend. gutted by
-substantive due process
-seperate but equal
-southern states make black second class citizens
Civil rights era
-constitution listst explicit, enumerated powers
-bill of rights esp. #10
-some disagreement amoung founders
limited govt. #3 of 7 principles
-underlying belief that power corrupts
-divide, dilute, distribute
-state v national
-checks and balances
separation of powers #4 of 7 principles
-special case of "seperation of powers"
-contrast with unitary and confederal systems
-practical necessity after revolution
-states were independent
federalism #5 of 7 principles
-e pluribus unum- for many one
-failures of Articles of Confederation
-national govt. cound not touch people
-hard realities demanded change
federal supremacy #6 of 7 principles
-who will interpret the social contract?
-constition implies the supreme court
-gives Supreme Court check on President and Congress
-also contributes to federal supremacy
Judicial Review #6 of 7 principles
-technically required 9/13
-reality unanimty
-federalist v anti-federalist
-govt too strong?
-govt strong enough to work?
-most powerful argument in favor of ratification
-most important American contribution to political theory
-85 in numbers
-NYC papers
The Federalist Papers
-argument for an extended republican state
-sheer geographic size of the U.S. will:
-control the adverse effects of faction and therefore make self govt possible
-turns previous logic
#10 of federalist papers
-control avarce of elected officials through checks and balances
-give each branch reason and power to "resist encroachments of the others"
-"ambition must be made to counteract ambition"
-different govts will control each other
#51 of the federalist papers
-Rebellion to prevent foreclosures on fars as a result of high interest rates and taxes
-revolt highlited the weaknesses of the ocnfederation and bolstered suppoert for a stronger national govt.
Shay's Rebellion
-list of individual right sand liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion and the press
Bill of Rights
-the current effort to scale back the sexe and activites of the national govt. and to shift responsiblity for a wide range of domestic programs from Washingtom to the States
-Opponents of a strong central govt. who campaigned against ratification of the constitution in favor of a confederation of largely independent states.
-people who believe that those who control the econoic system also control the political one
-the power of the courts to declare acts of the legistature and of the executive to be unconstitutional and hence null and void
judicial review
-the appointed officials who operate govt. agencies from day to day
-a theory that states had rights to declare and void a federal law
-in the state's opinion, violated the constition
-grants of $ from the federal govt to states for programs in certain general areas rather than for specific kinds of programs
block grants
-the flow of power and responsiblity from states to local govts
second-order devotion
-compromise at the constutional convention in 1787 that reconciled the interest of small and large states by allowing the former predominate in the Senate and the latter in the House
Great Compromise
-philosophy that assumes that the market will not automatically operate at a full employment low-inflation level
kenesyian economics
-the use of nongovernmental organizations to implement public policy
third-order devolution
-federal grants for specific purposes defined by federal law
categorical grants
-an awareness of belongings to particular cocio-econocmic class whose interest are dif. from those of others
class consciousness
-fed. rules attached to the grants that states recieve
conditions of aid
-a law that makes criminal an act that was illegal when it was committed, that increases the penalty fro a crime after it has been committed
ex post facto law
-a law providing the distribution of a fixed amount or shared of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any govt. purpose.
revenue sharing
-a citizen's believe that he or she can understand and influence political affairs
political efficiancy
-therory that competition among all effected interests shapes public policy
-ruels imposed bye the fed govt on the states as conditons for obtaining federal grants or requirements than the states pay the consts of certain nationally deined programs
-the power of an executive veto some provisions in an appropriations bill while approving others
line-item veto
-a law that declares a person, w/o a trial to be guilty of a crime
-forbidin a1 constituion
bill of attainder