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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 4 models of voting behavior?
Issues, Socio-Demographic, Party id, and performance of economy
Women are more Republican/Democratic, typically
what is a political party?
a group of like-minded people who join together to control the gov't through the electoral process.
what is the difference between political parties and interest groups?
political parties nominate a candidate
The US has a strong/weak party system?
the two types of parties are Weak parties and ________ parties.
What are 3 differences bt/w responsible parties and weak parties?
responsible parties have Fusion. a single party controls the gov't, whereas we have a divided gov't. responsible parties also have clear, consistent, and opposing platforms, whereas we have some overlap of parties' platforms. responsible parties allow for a quick implementation of changes, weak parties have slow implementation. Weak parties have a separatiion of powers
what is the general reason for why our party system is weak?
our constitutional structure pushes us toward a weak party system; separation of powers and federalism
T or F. Our nat'l parties have strong control over the nomination process
False. little control
4 reasons why our parties are weak and becoming weaker.
Australian Ballot, Primaries, Welfare Programs, and Technology
Because of primaries, Party leaders/ Voters have the power?
We have a weaker party system today because campains are more/less personalized.
more personalized. our parties are Candidate centered
Name 3 things George McGovern did (in 1968) to make parties weaker?
More media, More candidates, and the process is elongated now.
as opposed to other democracies, do we have a single member-simple plurality system, or a multiple member-proportional representation system?
We have single member districts and a simple pluratlity system.
what is a simple plurality system?
whoever gets the most votes in a district wins that election.
what 2 incentives result from a Single Member, Simple Plurality System?
1) Voters' incentive to move toward the top party
2) Losing parties have incentive to join together
2 reasons why we have a 2 party system.
1. difficulty in getting on the ballot
2. Campaign finance laws
T or F. Parties that move from the center tend to win.
False, they tend to lose.
what is a consequence of having a 2 party system?
parties are more centrist, or moderate.
2 party system pushes parties to be Broad coalitions. also, ideological range to the parties
T or F. According to Olsen, rational, self interested individuals will act to achieve their common group interests.
What is Party Identification?
self-id where your affiliation is what you say you are without legal recognition, formal membership, or consistent voting behavior.
what are the 2 theories of Party ID affiliation? describe both.
Life-Cycle theory:
increase in age --> incr.
in affiliation.
PID stays the same b/c old
people die off.

Generational Thry:
period of socialization
sets strength of affiliat'n
T or F. The same things that influence voting behavior influence party id as well.
Are political parties stronger or weaker than they used to be?
George McGovern made the parties weaker by changing what process?
the Nomination Process
The % of independents has incr/decr/stayed same since 1950? Give 2 reasons why.
increased/ doubled, because people see the parties as ineffective and have moved away from them,
and intensity of affiliation
Party ids can be seen in two ways. what are they?
a psychological affiliation and a perceptual screen/filter
why should party ids strengthen, according to the life-cycle theory?
because the party id acts as a perceptual screen.
if the race is close, people will predict what party to win?
their own party
Name 4 of the 5 reasons taht parties have become weaker over time.
Less control over elected officials
Less control over nominations
Less patronage
name 4 ways parties have gotten Stronger.
Local party organizations
More Likely Paid staff
parties train candidates now
party contacting more
what is an interest group?
an organization that engages in politics on behalf of its members
4 reasons why we are near the top in terms of interest group membership.
Religious Cleavages
Geographic Cleavages
Rules of Game- Sep. of Powers, Fed'lism
We have Weak parties
why would people not join interest groups, even if they sympathize with them?
free rider problem- people won't pay entry fees, they just want the benefits.
what are 3 incentives to join interest groups?
Solidary-- social
Purposive-- goals of inst.
Insider group
has direct point of access to the gov't
what is lobbying?
attempt to directly influence the decisions of gov't officials.
what are 4 kinds of info taht lobbying provides for members of congress?
give reasons for group's decision
tell how it can impact society
member of congress constituency
technical info
what is Grassroots lobbying?
attempts to influence the decisions of gov't officials INDIRECTLY
What are the 3 external factors that make interest groups more successful?
Bigger opposition
More intense opposition
Insider rather than OUtsider group. (ties to government)
what are 4 internal factors making an interest group more successful?
Nature of goals-- more modest
Size of group- bigger
Group cohesion-- more committment
what is a PAC ?
speialized organizations who electioneer by raising, spending, and contributing campaign funds
"arms of interest groups"
what dramatically increased the # of PACs?
the Federal Election Campaigns act
What's the diff bt/w Connected and Non-Connected PACs?
Connected pacs spend all their $ on the electoral concerns, b/c their operating expenses are paid by another PAC---
NonConnected pacs spend a lot of their money on own operating expenses
what are 3 advantages of PACs?
Stimulate participation
Helps challengers
Enhance interest articulation
- >info to congress members
What are 3 Disadvantages of PACs?
Incumbents get most of $$
Class bias
Exhaust congrss members' time
What is an outsider group?
groups that don't have direct points of access to the gov't. ex: criminal defense attorneys
What are some strategies of outsider groups?
file lawsuits
amicus briefs
what are the 3 types of nomination processes?
Primary election
Independent Route/Petition filed

Primaries = most common
what is pluralism?
theory stating all interests are made and should be free to compete for influence in the gov't.
the following are all fnxs of what?
Recruiting candidates
Getting out the vote
facilitating mass elctrl choice
influecing the nat'l gov't
Political Parties.
diff. bt/w open and closed primary.
open primary- individuals can declare their party affiliation on the actual day of the election.
closed primaries : participation is limited to individuals who have previously declared their affiliation by registering w/ a party.
what are local party organizations taht controlled local politics thru patronage and control of nominations?
Party machines