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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Historically, Americans were raised to think of the federal courts as what?
Interpreters of the law and not legislative
The judiciary was called the "least dangerours branch" by whom?
Alexander Hamilton
In the federal court system, courts lower than the Supreme Court are established by what?
congress
Judicial review was established for the national governement in what?
Article III
Judicial review was established for the state governement in what?
Article III
The term for Supreme Court and federal judges is for how long?
for life, until they die or resign
Among the checks on the powers of the Court are:
Alter the Court's jurisdiction, proprose amendments, and can impeach and remove federal judges
The Judiciary Act of 1789
Established the basic three-tierred structure of the federal court system
In 1789, there were justices sitting on the Supreme Court.
6
In the case of , the Supreme Court ruled that it had the right to hear suits brought by the citizens of one state against another under Article III, Section 2.
Chisholm v. Georgia
The Eleventh Amendment was passed in what year?
1798
John Marshall transformed the Court into a Coequal branch of government through key decisions such as McCulloch v. Marlyland that
Established the supremacy of the federal government and congress over the states thru the necessary and proper clause, supreme court final word on the constitution (can over rule state courts)
The jurisdiction of courts to hear disputes as a trial court is termed
Original Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of federal courts is controlled by whom?
U.S. Constitution and by statute
Appellate courts usually
Reviewed only findings of law made by lower courts
In a civil case, the party who brings a case against the defendant is referred to whom as the what?
Plantiff(petitioner)
There are federal district courts.
94
The U.S. Attorney is the judicial district's what?
Chief law enforcement officer
The second most powerful court in the U.S. is the .
D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals
A document containing the collected legal arguements in a case that is filed with a court pritor to trial is called a(n) .
Brief
In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions on new cases is called .
Stare decisis
Since 1869, The Supreme Court has consisted of how many justices?
9
The Supreme Court has a staff of
400 staff members
The justices of the Supreme Court are
Nominated by the president and must be confirmed by the Senate
In general, a nominee for the Supreme Court must fit certain criteria including
Competence, Ideology or policy preferences, rewards, pursuit of political support, religion, and race and gender
The Supreme Court has had ________ African American members in its history.
2
The Supreme Court has had ________ female members in its history.
2
Nearly ________ cases a year are filed with the Supreme Court.
1000
During the 2003-2004 term, the Supreme Court handed down signed opinions in ________ cases.
9000
Since 1988, nearly all appellate cases that have arrived at the Court have been through
Writ of certiorari
The Supreme Court will hear a case if ________ justices vote to do so.
4
In 2005, the Supreme Court employed ________ clerks.
34
The appellate cases the Supreme Court chooses to hear tend to have certain characteristics including
Fed. gov. asked for review, case involves conflict among circuit courts, case presents a civil rights or liberties question, case involves ideological or policy preferences of justices, or the case has significant social or policital interest
The member of the Justice Department who handles all appeals in the Supreme Court is the
Solicitor general
 Interest groups often join in court cases through the use of ________ in order to advance their policy preferences through the court system.
Amicus brief
During conference, Supreme Court justices speak in order by
In order of his or her seniority of the court
The idea that judges should use their power broadly to further justice is called
Judicial activism
The idea that judges should avoid making policy from the bench is called
Judicial restraint
Judicial decisions are translated into actual public policy through
Judicial implementation
Judicial decisions are most likely to be smoothly implemented if
members must show an understanding of the decision, they must follow court policy, and they must be aware of the rights that a decision grants or denies them
The Supreme Court ruled in ________ that every person should have an equally weighted vote in electing government officials.
Reynolds v. Sims