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43 Cards in this Set

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Astrotuff Lobbying
any lobbying method initiated by an interest group that is designed to look like the spontaneous independent participation of many individuals
Centralized Groups
interest groups that have a headquarters usually in Washington DC, as well as members and field offices throughout the country.
Coercion
a method of eliminating non-participation or free riding by potential group members by requiring participation in many labor unions
Confederations
interest groups made up of several independent, local organizations that provide much of their funding and hold most of the power.
Direct Lobbying
attempts by interest group staff to influence policy by speaking with elected officials or bureaucrats
527 Organization
a tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, they are not subject to contribution limits spending caps
Free Riding
the practice of relying on others to contribute to a collective effort, while failing to participate on one's own behalf and still benefiting from the group's success
Grassroots Lobbying
a lobbying strategy that relies on participation by group members such as protest, or a letter-writing campaign
Inside Strategies
tactics used by interest groups within Washington DC, to achieve their policy goals.
Interest Group Entrepreneurs
the leaders of an interest group who define the group's mission and its goal and create a plan to achieve them
K Street
a shorthand term for Washington lobbyists, derived from the name of the street in Washington DC, where lobbying firms once concentrated
Latent
a term describing a group of politically like-minded people that are not represented by an interest group
Mass Association
interest groups that have a large number of due-paying individuals as members
Outside Strategy
tactics used by interest groups outside Washington DC to achieve their policy goals
Political Action Committees (PAC)
an interest group or division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or the spend on ads in support of candidates. The amount of PAC can receive from each of its donors and its expenditures on federal campaigning are strictly limited
Purposive Benefits
satisfaction derived from the experience of working toward a desired policy goal, even if the goal is not achieved
Revolving Door
a term describing the movement of individuals from government positions to jobs with interest groups or lobbying firms, and vice versa
Salience
the level of familiarity with an interest group's goals among the general population
Selective Incentives
benefits that can motivate participation in a group effort because they can, available only to those who participate, such as member serves offered by interest groups
Solidary Benefits
satisfaction derived from the experience of working with like-minded people, even if the group's efforts do not achieve the desired impact
Taking the Last Train
a interest group strategy for gaining access to future office holders that involves donating money to the winning candidate after the election in hopes of securing a meeting with that person once (s)he takes office
Activists
People who dedicate there time, effort, and money to supporting on Election Day
Brand Names
The use of party names to evoke certain positions or issues. For instance, "Democrat" reminds you of environmental issues or universal health care
Conditional Party Goverment
the theory of lawmakers from the same party will coordinate to develop policy proposals
Dealignment
A decline in the percentage of citizens who identify with one of the major parties, usually over the course of a decade or longer
Divided Government
A situation in which the House, Senate, and presidency are not controlled by the same party.
National Committee
An American political party's principal organization, comprised of party representatives from each state.
Parties In Service
The role of the parties in recruiting, training, contributing to, and campaigning for congressional and presidential candidates.
Party Coalitions
The groups who identify with a political party, usually described in demographic terms
Party ID
A citizen's loyalty to a specific political party.
Party In Government
The group of officeholders who belong to a specific political party and were elected as candidates of that party
Party In Power
Under unified government, the party that controls the House, Senate, and presidency. Under divided government, the president's party.
Party in the Electorate
the group of citizens who identify with a specific political party
Party Organization
A specific political party's leaders and workers at the national, state and local levels
Party Platform
A set objectives outlining the party's issue positions and priorities-although candidates are not required to support their party's platform.
Party System
A period of time in which the names of the major political parties, their supporters, and the issues dividing them remain relatively stable.
Polarized
A term describing the alignment of both party's members with their own party's issues and priorities, with little crossover support for the other party's goals.
Political Machine
An unofficial patronage system within a political party that seeks to gain political power and government contracts, jobs, and other benefits for party leaders, workers, and supporters.
Realignment
A change in the size of composition of the party coalitions or in the nature of the issues that divide the parties
Responsible Parties
A system in which each political party's candidates campaign on the party platform, work together in office to implement the platform, and are judged by voter's based on whether they achieved the platform's objectives.
Single-member Districts
an electoral system in which every elected official represents a geographically defined area, such as a state or congressional district, and each area elects one representative. These districts can get manipulated in order to favor one political party's way of thinking.
Spoils System
the practice of rewarding party supporters with benefits like federal government positions. This is to encourage people to support and advocate for certain parties, as well as to encourage loyalty of certain parties
Unified Govement
A situation in which one party holds a majority of seats in the House and Senate and the president is a member of the same party.