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117 Cards in this Set

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New Class
Has college and postgraduate degrees and works in occupations that involve using symbols. Tends to have liberal views.
Office-bloc ballot
Lists candidates under the name of the office
Political efficacy
A citizen's sense that he/she can understand and influence policy
Political Ideology
A coherent and consistent set of attitudes about who ought to rule and what policies ought to be adopted.
Liberal
Favors active gov't for regulating business, social welfare, minority rights; less regulation of private social conduct.
Conservative
Limited and local gov't, less gov't regulation of markets, more social conformity to traditional norms and values, and tougher policies toward criminals
Libertarian
Free market, low taxes, small gov't (Fiscally conservative); Social liberals
Populist
Liberal on economic matters, but conservative on social matters (abortion, legalizing prayer)
Political Elite
An identifiable group of persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource-- such as money or political power.
Culture War
Class between the new class and the traditional middle class
News leaks
Been around since the beginning of politics
Gatekeeper
Media can influence what subjects become national political issues, and for how long
Scorekeeper
National media helps make political reputations, and helps decide who wins and who loses in Washington politics
Watchdog
The media has a instinctive and profitable desire to expose scandals and investigate personalities, to be tolerant of underdogs, and tough on frontrunners
Two-Party System
We have two parties that have a chance of winning. It is a rarity in the rest of the world. European parties are multiparty systems.
Strong political party
Parties in forgeign democracies; Parties are very important in their everday lives
Ideological Party
A party that values principled stands on issues above all else, including winning. It claims to have a comprehensive view of American society and government radically different from that of the established parties.
Voting Rights Act
Suspended use of literacy tests for African Americans
BCRA
2002
1. Banned soft money
2. Independent expenditures sharply restricted
3. Limit of individual contributions up to 2,000
Material Incentives
Benefits that have monetary value: money, gifts, services or discounts one receives for being a member in an organization
Revolving Door
Using ones knowledge of political policy for a fee
Think Tank
Public Policy research group. Ideological not "democratic" or "republican"
Realignment
A whole group of voters set on a new course usually leaving to form a new party. Ex: Whigs becoming Republicans
Dealignment
A mass of voters dissapear, but don't go with a party
Interest Group
An organization of people, sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
Solidary Incentives
Social rewards that lead people to join local or state political organizations.
Purposive Incentives
The benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle from which one does not personally benefit.
Solidary Groups
An incentive that relies on friendship or sociability
Public interest lobby
A political organization, the stated goals of which will principally benefit non-members.
Political Cue
A signal telling a congressional representative what values are at stake in a vote and how that issue fits into his or her own set of political beliefs or party agenda.
Sponsored Parties
A relatively strong party that is created among volunteers without heavy reliancek on money or ideology. Occurs when another organization in town finds party worthwile
Ex: UAW in Detroit
Types of Minor parties
Ideological Parties, One-Issue parties, Economic-Protest Party, Factional Party
Ideological Party
Comprehensive view of American society completely different. Socialist, Communist
One-Issue Party
Parties seeking a single policy, usually revealed by their names, and avoiding other issues. Women's party, Prohibition Party
Economic-Protest Party
Parties especially involving farmers that protest against depressed economic conditions. Tend to disappear as conditions improve. Greenback, Populist
Factional Party
Created by a split in a major party, usually over the identity and philosophy fo the major party's presidential candidate. Bull Moose Progressive party
National Committee
A committee of delegates from each state and territory that runs party affairs betwen national convention.
National Convention
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries that is held every four years. To nominate presidential candidates and to rattify a campaign platform.
Personal Following
The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks
Primary
An election prior to the general election in which voters select the candidates who will run on each ticket
Plurality System
Competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
Superdelegates
Delegates to presidential nominating convention in US. Not party officials or elected officeholders
Political Machine
Recruits its members by dispensing patronage--incentives-- characterized by a high degree of leadership control over membership activity
Political Action Committee
A committee set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group that raises and spends campaign contributions on behalf of one or more candidates or causes.
General Election
An election used to fill an elective office
Closed Primary
Primary limited to registered party members
Open Primary
Permits voters to choose on election day which side to vote for
Soft Money
Money raised by political parties for activities other than directly supporting a federal candidate
People who have a disproportionate amount of political power
Elites
Middle-income people who live in cities, do not attend church, and have mostly liberal political views
New Class
One who is conservative on both economic and personal-conduct issues
Pure conservative
One who is conservative on economic issues, liberal on personal conduct issues
libertarian
A term used by the Framers to describe what we call today call "factions"
Publics
Newspapers created, sponsored, and controlled by political parties to further their interests
Party Press
A person that it is by personal action rather than government programs that improve their lives
Conservative
Self-supporting daily newspapers aimed at a mass readership
Popular Press
Children appear to be more likely to accept their parent's beliefs on policy than their parent's party identification
False
Blacks are the least consistentetly liberal minority group within the Democratic party.
False, they are the most consistently liberal.
In their Political Attitudes, Asian Americans are more like Latinos and African Americans than Whites.
False, they are more like whites
"Pure conservatives" oppose all sorts of gov't extension, whether into economic or lifestyle matters
False, they support tough gov't control on crime
The new class draws more power from governmental than business institutions.
True
Because of its visual nature and larger audience, television plays a larger political role in American than do newspapers and magazines.
False. Its role is smaller. Newspapers and magazines are the gatekeeper, scorekeeper, and watchdog
Most states, unlike the federal gov't, have passed laws that force reporters to disclose their condidential sources
False, most states have not.
Is church and state intended to be a check on public opinion?
No
The process by which young people acquire their attitudes
political socialization
If you are in favor of reducing federal taxes and quarantining AIDS, you are...
pure conservative
America has a very ____ broadcasting industry
decentralized
______ Was the first pres. to systematically cultivate the press
Teddy Roosevelt
One of Jimmy Carter's large achievements in dealing with the press in the 1976 primary campaign was ____
Getting himself mentioned with great frequency
Constitution was designed to
achieve goals, not follow majority will
Political distrust started because
Vietnam and political scandals
Younger votes exhibit less _____
partisanship
Women were _____ in 1950s and are now _______
1. republican
2. democrat
Past cleavages/ Current cleavages
Past: occupation and income. Current: race, religion
Franklin Roosevelt
Press secretary was a major instrument for cultivating press
Any group that seeks to influence public policy
Interest Group
Individuals or grops representing other organizations
Ideological Parties
The sense of pleasure, status, or companionship arising from group memberships
Solidary Incentives
Money, things, or services obtainable from interest group membership
Material Incentives
An organization whose goals, if realized, would benefit primarily nongroup members.
Public-Interest Lobby
Political party founded by Thomas Jefferson
Democratic-Republicans
Group of reformers who were able to reduce the worst forms of political corruptio within political parties
Progressives
A citizen's sense that he or she can understand and influence politics
Political Efficacy
Reform oriented legislation which took federal employees out of machine politics
Hatch Act of 1939
A political party organization that recruits its members by the use of tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member's activities
Political Machine
A political party organization built around allegiance to a particular candidate
Personal Following
Simply refers to getting more votes in an election that the other candidate (not a majority)
Plurality
A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label
Political Party
The ultimate authority in both major political parties in the United States
National Party Convention
Members of the House of Represenations are elected from these
Single-member districts
Parties that value experience above all else
Ideological Parties
Campaign money which is not regulated by the government
Soft Money
Political party founded by Andrew Hamilton
The Federalists
A closed meeting of party leaders to select party candidates
Caucus
Campaign money which is subject to regulation by the government
Federal Money
The Whigs were supporters of Andrew Jackson
False, they were in opposition to Jackson
The modern Republican party began as a third party
True
Big-city machines were caused by the floods of immigrants in the nineteenth century
False, they were perfected before then
The Jacksonians
Mass political participation due to more voters being eligible. Unable to survive slavery
The 26th Amendment
Gave vote to 18 year olds
Voter turn out has _____ since the early 1970s
not fallen
Why is voter turn out so low?
A small fraction of voters are registered
Primary elections ______ parties
weaken
Staff of a candidate:
1. Core group: a few paid professionals
2. Rise of professional political consultants
3. Unpaid senior advisers
4. Issues consultants
Three Reasons why Democrats don't always win:
1. Dems less firmly wedded to party
2. Repubs do better among indep. voters
3. Repubs more likely to vote than Democrats
Single-Issue Groups
Nothing new about them; Don't make a sig. difference; can be imp. in primary elections
3 things that decide presidential elections
1. Political Party Affiliation
2. State of the economy
3. Character of the candidate
Five Realignments
1800, 1828, 1860 (slavery), 1896 (econ), 1932 (depression)
What form of television gives the voter the most information?
Spots
Legislation that made it illegal to exclude potential voters on the basis of color
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A document that is governement-printed, of uniform size, and cast in secret
Australian Ballot
PAC contributions for advertising supporting or opposing a candidate that are made without a candidate's direction and approval
Independent Expenditures
Monetary donations given by individuals, unions, and corporations to state political parties that can be spent in ways that help presidential candidates
Soft money
A higher percentage of Democrats than Republicans vote in elections
True
Federal campaign reforms have largely succeeded in their goals of eliminating the "fat cats" from the election process
True
One effect of campaign finance reforms is that it makes a challenger's job of defeating an incumbent more difficult.
True
One explanation given by the text for the decline in American voter participation in presidential elections after 1900 is:
election fraud was rampant in the 19th century