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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the two theories of community power.
Elite Theory
Pluralist Theory
Which is not a type of municipal government?
Presidential Committee
A governance system that features an elected council, which then hires a manager to run agencies and recommend policies, is called a:
Council-manager
A professional hired by a government to direct daily operations and services and to make recommendations for policy changes is a:
Manager
A process in which the entire jurisdiction serves as the constituency for an elected position:
At-large election
A governance system that features an elected council which then hires a manager to run agencies and recommend policies is called a:
Council-manager
Which cities have town meetings?
Under 25,000
What are the four types of municipal governments?
Town Meeting
Mayor Council
Council-Manager
Commission
The major goals of progressives where to destroy political machines.
True
What is the theory of in American communities that single elite, with wealth and prestige, is in control?
Elite Theory
The Theory that states that there are a variety of power center, rather than one ruling elite is:
Pluralist Theory
What form of governance evolved from the response of Galveston, Texas, to a hurricane in 1900 that killed almost 10,000 people, in which individuals elected to a commission assume administrative responsibility for a specific dimension of government as well as legislative obligations for the jurisdiction as a whole?
Commission
What are the 4 basic characteristics of bureaucracies?
Job specialization
Hierarchy of authority
System of rules
Impersonality of operation
In a bureaucratic organization, who makes policies?
Top Executive
Title seven of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment based
Ethinicity
What is a process or sets of criteria that disadvantages men or whites?
Reverse Discrimination
Sexual favors for employment opportunities are called:
Quid pro quo
What term refers to the objectives of the legislator when they pass a bill?
Legislative Intent
In the hierarchy of authority, what is the duty of the top executive?
Make Policies
Which term refers to the full range of activities involved in hiring, promoting, training, and compensating workers?
Personnel Management
In a series of cases, the Supreme Court has ruled that hiring and firing employees based on party affiliation is:
Violation of the 1st Amendment
Quotas are allowed in order to ensure minority representation in the work place.
False
. _________ is an analytical perspective that focuses on relationships between administrative agency, legislative committee, and interest groups who are concerned about a particular policy.
Iron Triangle
Are states allowed to veto the application of regulations issues by Washington?
Yes
Name the reasons for regulation:
a. Surrogate for market forces
b. Protection
c. Externalities
d. Safety
The laws that authorize action by an agency both _________ and __________.
Limit and enable
What is a quota system?
A system that some companies use whereby a certain number of positions are reserved for members or certain ethnic or gender groups.
An “iron triangle” consists of three bodies:
. Administrative agency
b. Legislative committee
c. Interest groups
What is a policy that adjusts pays scales of jobs traditionally filled by women to the market value of male dominated jobs?
Pay Equity
Sexual harassment includes two things:
a. Employment opportunity for sexual favors
b. Hostile treatment that is gender related
In order to eliminate the effects of political machines, bureaucracies were reformed through the implementation of:
The Merit System
To whom are state employees accountable?
a. Public
b. The agency they work for
c. The Governor
All the courts in the United States are under the same system.
False
When two different courts have the authority to try someone for a crime committed in the same incident is called:
Dual Jurisdiction
The party that initiates a legal dispute is the:
Plaintiff
Crimes that relate to contractual and liability relationships between organizations, between individuals and between individuals and organizations are known as:
Civil Law
Crimes against persons and property that deal with fundamental law and order in a society are known as:
Criminal Law
This type of case involves disputes between individuals or organizations:
Civil
What amendment was upheld in the case of Mapp v. Ohio?
4th
A specific dispute strategically litigated in order to get a court ruling establishing precedent and principles that would apply to others in a similar situation is (a):
Test Case
What is the lowest level of the court?
Justice of the Peace
The interpretation of the law rendered by an attorney general that is not binding but carries considerable weight is known as:
Legal Opinion
A formal accusation of a crime is known as a(n):
Indictment
What are the three federal courts from highest ranking to lowest?
Supreme Court, Appeals Court, District Court
A sworn statement which may be used in a court proceeding is called:
Affidavit
Name the four judicial actions:
a. Sentence
b. Restraining order
c. Award
d. Injunction
A standard of proof that must be met to find someone guilty of almost all by the most serious of crimes is called:
Preponderance of evidence
The two girls who claimed that the Virginia Tech shooter was harassing them, may have gotten one of these to keep him away:
A restraining order
A bench trial is a trial:
where just the judge is present
A court must have __________ to determine if there is sufficient interest in a dispute to allow them to pursue their rights in a lawsuit.
Standing
Based on a recent Supreme Court ruling, who must be involved in prescribing the death penalty?
The Judge Only
State court system reforms have been modeled after what plan?
Missouri Plan
Traffic Court is a:
Special Court
What case ruled that Minnesota’s law prohibiting judicial candidates from discussing substantive issues or telling voters how they would handle certain types of cases was unconstitutional?
Republican Party of Minnesota vs. White
The release of someone from incarceration before a full sentence has been served is called:
Parole
What are the three elements of a crime?
Criminal, victim, location
Intensive efforts and heavy presence by police in a specific area, designed to stop criminal activity in that location is called:
Blue Blanket
The 4th through 8th Amendments provide:
Rights to individuals accused of crimes.
Truth-in-sentencing allows prisoners to be released before serving the complete sentence.
False
Name the four kinds of facilities used to incarcerate criminals:
Jail
Prison
Penitentiary
Correctional Institution
What are the alternatives to prison?
Parole
Probation
Work release
Electronic house detention
Boot camps
Intensive sanctions
What are the four policy approaches applied to convicted people?
Punishment
Deterrence
Rehab
Confinement
What is the practice of treating someone as suspicious because they have traits associated with a substantial segment of the imprisoned population?
Racial Profiling
What are the three most heavily targeted groups of victims?
a. Children
b. Elderly
c. Women
What is the term used for prisons that emphasized a rehabilitation approach toward inmates?
Correctional institution
What is a sentence in which someone is not incarcerated but is closely monitored and must adhere to a highly structured schedule?
Intensive sanctions
What kind of law or policy requires that after individuals have been convicted of three felonies, they must serve a life sentence without parole?
Three strikes and you’re out
What is the name for a county of city facility for incarcerating individuals who are awaiting trial or serving relatively short sentence?
Jail
What is the precedent that states that evidence obtained in a manner that violates an individual’s constitutional rights may not be used in legal proceedings by prosecutors?
Exclusionary rule
According to the FBI, what is the most common crime committed?
Larceny-theft
What are the 2 highest property and violent crime areas?
South and West
The average annual operational prison cost, per prisoner, is:
$31,000
According to our text, what percentage of all crimes reported in 2003 were murders and rapes?
Less than 1%
Which court case, according to the test, ruled that evidence not specified or anticipated in a search warrant may still be used, removing some limitations on police officers and district attorneys?
Maryland v. Garrison
All but _______ states have the death penalty.
12
What President implemented No-Child Left Behind?
Bush 43
From 1965 through 1977, the main concern of minority students was:
Equal opportunity education.
Which of these is an institution within the public school system that operates through contract which gives them more flexibility than traditional public schools?
Charter
Two commonly found reform initiatives among the State in the late 1980s were student achievement and ____________?
Teacher Quality
Taxpayer-supported financial assistance to needy parents who want to send their children to private schools is called:
Voucher Programs
Where is a majority of public school funding coming from?
State
What authorized the U.S. Attorney General to initiate lawsuits to force desegregation of public schools?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
What grades are mostly affected by No Child Left Behind?
3-8
This is the practice of turning school administration over to For-Profit, private enterprise:
Privatization
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 was in response to what?
The Soviet Union’s launch of the Sputnik satellite
The practice by which faculty in colleges and universities establish the academic curriculum, evaluate scholarship, and recommend the hiring and termination of faculty members, and advice the campus administration on policy is called:
Faculty governance
Which of the following has contributed the most to elementary and secondary education?
State governments
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 provided funding for all of the following except:
Literature
Which country has the lowest mathematics and science proficiency of 8th-graders?
United States
Which country has the highest mathematics and science proficiency of 8th graders?
Singapore
. During what period was emphasis placed on expanding the capacity of school districts to accommodate large increases of enrollment because of postwar demographic changes?
1946-1964
Which California court case rules that education was “a fundamental right guaranteed by California’s constitution that ‘cannot be a condition of the wealth of a child’s parents or neighbors’”?
Serrano v. Priest
Which state, in 1985, became the first state to require existing teachers to pass a basic competency test, measuring skills in reading, elementary math, and grammar.
Arkansas
What state became the first state to base high school graduation on a student’s achieving competencies in numerous academic areas, instead of accumulating passing grades in required classes?
Pennsylvania
What two states were the first to enact laws authorizing the creation of charter schools?
Minnesota and California
Which president started TANF?
Clinton
The cycle of poverty is associated with ___________?
Liberalism
One out of how many children live in poverty?
5
Which social program provides medical insurance to the elderly?
Medicare
What was the first social assistance program?
Social Security
Who are the poor in America?
Families with single mothers
Explain the cycle of dependence.
Kids who grow up on welfare are more likely to raise their kids on it
_________________provides benefits to those who qualify for Social Security of Railroad Retirement benefits by working for a certain period of time and making minimally required contributions into the fund.
Medicare
The Family Support Act:
Requires states to have a JOBS program
______________ is a program of federal block grants to the states that provides financial assistance to needy families with dependent children.
TANF
Which of these is NOT a category of social welfare programs?
Employment
Which is NOT a major social insurance program?
Food stamps
Which program did TANF replace in August 1996?
AFDC
What proposal by economist Milton Friedman would set annual guaranteed levels of income for families of various sizes, to be paid by the government?
Negative income tax
Which of these is NOT one of the six principles that President Clinton wanted national health care reform to be based?
Universilization
Name the five categories of social welfare programs:
a. Income maintenance
b. Nutrition
c. Social services
d. Housing Assistance
e. Health
Which three states, between 1993 and 2000, had the largest percentage of welfare reduction?
Oklahoma, Wyoming, Idaho
The label applying broadly to public assistance programs that require recipients to work for their benefits is:
Workfare
Legislation passed by Congress in 1988 that required each state to operate a Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program was called:
Family Support Act
What are other options for health care reform?
a. Family Allowance
b. Negative income tax
What percent of girls who families are highly dependent on welfare will replicate that dependence in their own lives?
20%
Most state welfare rolls dropped about ________ from 1993 to 2000.
41-60%
What percentage of the working population is covered by Social Security?
90%
Which U.S. President called for Congress to adopt a national workface program requiring all able-bodied recipients to work for their benefits?
Reagan
The idea those female headed households with children are 5 times more likely to be poor than are married couple families is known as:
Feminization of poverty
What agency did the Environmental Protection Act create?
EPA
Legislation that directed the EPA to promulgate allowable levels of different chemical and bacteriological pollutants in local water systems is known as:
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
Attempted to create a balanced approach to cleaning up the air; States had time limits to bring the air up to federal standards:
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
What program aims at reducing components of urban smog and sulfur dioxide emissions by allowing regulated industries to buy and sell so-called emission credits:
Market-based incentives
What economic development policy uses tax abatements, loans, and relaxation of regulation to encourage development within a governmental jurisdiction’s boundaries?
Supply-side economic development policy
Which presidential administration proposed the “Clear Skies” initiative?
Bush II
_____________ is a value on attaining greater equity in sharing the increased environmental risks of having solid waste disposal facilities located in one’s neighborhood.
Environmental justice
What are the five supply side incentives?
a. Recruitment
b. Tax abatements
c. Loans
d. Physical infrastructure
e. Relaxed regulations
When did Congress enact most of its key environmental legislation?
1970s
What year was the Environmental Protection Act passed?
1970
What is the official name of the Clean Water Act?
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
Which of these is NOT one of the five commonly used tools by states to attract economic development programs?
Government “favors”
Because of the EPA, what is now required in all projects financed with federal funds?
Environmental impact statement
The traditional approach to regulating air pollution, which prompted industries to adopt technology to limit pollution through the installation of devices such as smokestack scrubbers and filters is called:
Technology forcing standards
Which of the following men declared himself the “environment president”?
George W. Bush
The condition existing when expenditures exceed revenues at the close of a given fiscal period is called:
Budget deficit
Which theory states that the government’s role of using fiscal policy to manage the economy increased employment and raises aggregate demand?
Keynesian Economics
Which tax is based on transfers of goods and services?
Sales tax
State governments get most of their revenues from:
Sales and gross taxes
Local governments get most of their revenues from:
Property Tax
Fees charged in return for service are:
User fees
_____________ are devices used by governments to raise revenues.
Revenue instruments
How many states do not require a balanced budget, either by statute or in their constitution?
1
Which state collects the most taxes per capita?
Hawaii
A tax that increases as ability to pay rises is known as:
Progressive
A tax hat applies the same rate to all level of income is called:
Flat Tax
The requirement that expenditures not exceed revenues in a given fiscal period. It is applied to most state and local governments, not the federal government. This refers to:
Balanced budget requirement
A tax on the extraction of natural resources such as oil and natural gas is called:
Severance tax
Which is not true about Keynesian Economics?
The government decreases spending during bad economic times
What is the perspective of organized interest groups on public policy debates?
They influence the way a problem is defined and which alternatives are to be considered legitimate.
Where do policy makers acquire fund for programs?
Tax Dollars
What forms the basis for political conflict?
Different perspectives on policy
What is legal authorization defined by?
The State Constitution
What does fiscal capacity combine?
Considerations about wealth and policies.