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14 Cards in this Set

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Enumerated Powers
The explicit powers given to Congress by the Constitution in Article I, Section 8. These include the powers of taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and provision for the national defense
Elastic Clause
Another name for the “necessary and proper clause” of the Constitution
Dual Federalism
A system of government in which the federal government and state governments each have mutually exclusive spheres of action
Categorical Grant
A federal grant of money to states or localities for a specific purpose. These grants usually require states to provide matching funds and to adhere to federal guidelines in spending the money
Cutthroat Competition
Competition among states that involves adopting policies that each state would prefer to avoid. For example, states engage in this type of competition when they underbid one another on tax breaks to attract businesses relocating their facilities
Preemption Legislation
Laws passed by Congress that override or preempt state or local policies. This power derives from the supremacy clause (Article VI) of the Constitution. (See also supremacy clause.)
Revenue Sharing
Nonspecific grants of money made by the federal government to the states and based on size and population
Nationalization
Shifting to the national government responsibilities traditionally exercised by the states
Block Grants
Broad grants of money given by the federal government to state governments. The grants specify the general area (such as education or health services) in which the funds may be spent but leave it to the state to determine the specific allocations
Shared Federalism
A system in which the national and state governments share in providing citizens with a set of goods
Tenth Amendment
The amendment that offers the most explicit endorsement of federalism to be found in the Constitution: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”
Grants-in-Aid
Funds given by Congress to state or local governments for a specific purpose
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and several regional governments. In the United States the division is between the national government and the states
Unitary Government
A system of government in which a single government unit holds the power to govern the nation (in contrast to a federal system, in which power is shared among many governing units)