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31 Cards in this Set

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Obstacles of establishing regional human rights mechanism in East Asia
1) Political instability-two chinas and two koreas
2)Antagonistic history-Legacy of WWII, Japanese invasion of china and refusal to appologize
3)Confucion tradion-more collective society, nondemocratic
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agencey
NPT
Non-Proliferation Treaty
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
Problems Facing the South
1)Urbanization
2)Population growth
3)Income gap between countries
4)Incomegap within countries
5)??braindrain??
Methods that Treaty-based Mechanisms Use to Monitor State Parties
1)Submissions of periodic reports to commission
2)Interstate communications-states interact with one another and make reports to committe.
3)Individual petitions from citizens from state parties
Justification for Regional Human Rights Mechanisms
1)Reflect regional particularities
2)Stronger enforcement mechanism
3)Provides easier access than the larger scale, like UN.
Methods of Human Rights NGO's
1)Provide accurate, up to date information to UN
2)Monitor human rights situations in the world and disseminate info.
3)Draft new international human rights legislation
4)File human rights petitions on behalf of human rights victims to the UN and regionsl mechanisms.
5)Use imminient lawyers, judges, etc. as observers at trials to put pressure upon those trying human rights violaters to ensurethat prosecution is fully pursued.
6)Send fact-finding missions to various countries
7)Lobby public opinions agains human rights violators.
8)Use urgent action networks to intervene in situations where immediate response is neccessary.
Theories of International Political Economy (IPE)
1)Economic Nationalism-belief that economics is a zero sum game, competition for limited resources. Protectionism(e.g. tariffs, trade barriers, subsidies).
2)Economic Internationalism- International economic cooperation brings everyone prosperity. Free trade, capitalism, laissez-faire economy.
3)Economic Structuralism- Marxism. Includes World Systems Theory (Single capitalist economy, three levels, the more powerful levels exploit and gain power from lower levels). Dependency Theory.
Sources of International Law and Justice
Article 38 of the statute of the International Court of Justice.
1)International Treaties- create binding obligations based on expressed consent.
2)International Custom- Extraterritoriality "tacit agreement".
3)General principle of law recognized by civilized nations. Non-interference in the affairs of other states, respect for human rights. Self determination.
4)Judicial decisions- Scholarly writings of highly qualified publicists, become sources by which law and decisions about rulings are derived.
International Criminal Court
Legal mechanism in which has permanent, and irrevocable jurisdiction over certain offenses.
1)Genocide- An act with intent to destroy, in whole or part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.
2)War Crimes
3)Crimes Against Humanity
4)Crimes of Aggression--(Complementary) used when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute crimes like when a ruler commits crimes but is far too powerful to be questioned.
NAFTA (1994)
North American Free Trade Agreement- Regional economic treaty between Canada, United States, and Mexico. Inquiliadores.
ASEAN (1967)
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Regional economic cooperation treaty founded originally by Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Phillipines, and Malaysia. Since creation, has added Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, and Brueni.
Mercousue (1995)
Regional economic cooperational treat between Argentine, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruaguay, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuala.
World Bank
The largest lending instituition to developing countries. Includes several smaller parts:
1)International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
2)International Development Agency
3)International Finance Corporation
4)Multinational Investment Guarantee Agency
International Bill of Rights
Informal name given to three international treaties and conventions established by the United Nations consisting of:
1)Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
2)International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
3)International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (1966).
ECOSOC's Specialized Agencies
1)WHO- World Health Organization
2)World Band
3)International Monetary Fund
4)UNICEF- United Nations Children Fund
5)UNIDO- United Nations Industrial Development Organization
6)World Intellectual Property Organization
7)UNESCO- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
Sustainable Development
Discussed frequently of the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development. "Our Common Future." Meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Renewable Energy
1)Nuclear Energy
2)Hydroelectric
3)Solar
4)Geothermal
5)Wind
6)Biomass
7)Hydrogen
Branches of the United Nations
General Assembly
Has Sovereign Equality (each of the 191 countries has a vote which are all equal in the power they carry).
Branches of the United Nations
Security Council
15 total members
P-5 (China, Russia, United Kingdom, France, United States)all hold permanent representation, and have veto power. Many countries unhappy because these five represent post WWII powers and not their contributions.
Other 10 remaining members of the 15 are elected every two years.
Branches of the United Nations
Secretareat
Contains the UN secretary general, the figurehead of the UN.
7,500 members considered "international civil servants."
Branches of the United Nations
International Court of Justice
Comprised of 15 justices that serve 9 year terms.
Five of the 15 are from P-5 countries.
Offer advisory opinion, try war crimes, and establish the legality of the use of nuclear weapons.
United Nations
Created for the purpose of: maintaining international peace, developing friendly relationships, and achieving international cooperation. Contains six branches:
1)General Assemble
2)International Court of Justice
3)Secretareat
4)Security Council
5)Trusteeship Council
6)ECOSOC Council of Economic and Social
Branches of the European Union
Executive Branch
European Commission (30 members five year terms) single executive is the president of the commission.
1)Propose legislation to Parliment
2)Impliment EU policies
3)Enforce EU laws
Branches of the European Union
Legislative Branch
European Parliment (732 members serving five year terms).
Branches of the European Union
Judiciary Branch
European Court of Justice & The Court of First Instance
Objectives of Amnesty International
a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising "a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights".[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not been respected. It works to mobilize public opinion in the belief that it is this which has the power to exert pressure on those who perpetrate abuses.
ABM
Anti-ballistic missle Treaty; a treaty between the US and the USSR on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile systems.
START
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991), proposed by Reagan months before the fall of the Soviet Union.
CTBT
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996) Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.