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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What are three fundamental elements of a democracy?
Popular sovereignty, political equality, and political liberty
The three P's
What position does your authors take in the Struggle for Democracy regarding the majority tyranny?
The majority violated the citizenship of a minority. "Threatens Liberty"
What is the supremacy clause? Where and in what document can it be found?
The constitution and laws of the US shall be "the supreme law of the land". Found in Article 6 Section 2
takes precedence over state laws
In 1913, Charles Beard wrote a provocative book about the Framers. What did he argue?
Broad economic and social class motives were at work in shaping the actions of the framers. (Protected their immediate/personal economic interest.)
Who were the Federalists? What did they believe in?
Political party of Hamilton, Washington, and Adams. (Supported the Constitution)
How many of the original thirteen states had to approve an amendment to the Articles of Confederation before the amendment passed?
All 13
What is the so-called "loophole" regarding ratification refer to?
Out of 13 states, only 9 had to approve
What form of government do most countries operate under?
Unitary Government
What was America's first written, national constitution?
Articles of Confederation
What does selective incorporation refer to?
protecting the Bill of Rights when it comes to the states.
What are some arguments in favor of federalism?
Diversity needs, closeness to the people, experimentation, and innovation.
4 arguments
What are some arguments against federalism?
National standards, popular control, and needs for uniformity.
3 arguments
What are interstate compacts? Why did the Framers include them in the Constitution?
Agreements among states to cooperate on solving problems. Congress approves. Framers wanted to prevents coalitions of states.
What were some of the political consequences of the dynamic US economy of the 1990's?
economic growth and low inflation fueled job creation. For the former was exciting-lucrative. Latter routine poor pay, layoffs, part-time. Income inequality. (rich got richer/poor got poorer)
Why are political opinion polls important to democracy?
The voice of the people can be heard.
Can political opinion polls accurately reveal the mood of the public?
If it is randomly sampled
What is the minimum number of participants required for a reliable poll?
1,000 people, randomly sampled
What is political efficacy?
The feeling that no one can affect what the government does.
What does party identification refer to?
The sense of belonging to one or another political party.
What are the Pentagon Papers?
A secret defense department history of the US's involvement in Vietnam.
Vietnam
What does the term "rally around the flag" refer to?
People getting together when there is a national tragedy.
Example 9/11
How does the media usually report foreign affairs? Do they tend to run stories that compliment or go against US policies?
Takes a pro-American, patriotic point of view, favoring the US
What are the rules of "objective" journalism?
Reporter cannot be quoted directly, staged events, and no explicit interpretations.
What is an interest group?
Group that conveys and defends the interests of the individuals/groups to public officials.
What is a lobbyist? What is the most important aspect of lobbying?
A person that tries to convey views to a decision maker. Getting the decision maker to vote the provision.
What is "standing"? What interest group strategy does it affect?
Ability to sue because someone is directly affected by the issue.
What is the difference between public and private interest groups?
Public= general welfare of community
Private=benefits a fraction of community (members only)
What does disturbance theory refer to?
Origin of interest group changes to threaten the well-being of some of the population.
What is the main concern of American labor unions?
Protect the jobs of their members and secure maximum wages and benefits.
What is an "iron triangle"?
An alliance of a private interest group with an agency in the executive branch. Protect and advances government programs that benefit members.
What is the perspective of your authors regarding corporate political power?
When business is both mobilized and unified, its political power can be formidable.
Bad econ.times= people want to get the economy going, no undertaking reforms.
Before Congress passed the Seventeenth Amendment, how were US senators selected?
They were chosen directly by the voters.
How many members are there in Congress?
535
What is the difference between the delegate and trustee styles of representation?
A delegate mirrors the views of the constituents, a trustee acts independently, using own judgment.
Are major parties candidate or party centered?
candidate centered
How long has the US been a two party system?
1836
Answer is a Year.
What does party realignment mean?
Means that one party elects another as the dominant.
What was the main difference between Prop. 78 and 79?
Prop 78; voluntarily discounts medicine, where as Prop 79 makes it mandatory.
What is president Theodore Roosevelt remembered for?
He enhanced the power of presidency.
What is the basic definition of the federal bureaucracy?
The totality of the departments and agencies of the executive branch of the national government.
What is a whistleblower?
People who bring official misconduct in their agencies to public attention.
What is judicial review?
The power of the Supreme court to declare actions of the other branches and levels of government unconstitutional.
Does the constitution explicitly discuss judicial review?
NO!
Why are the court's dissenting opinions important?
In the future, it becomes the basis for Court majorities.
How long do oral arguments before the Supreme court last?
30 minutes
What norms does the Supreme Court operate on?
secrecy, seniority, adherence to precedent
What is due process?
14th amendment that prohibits states from depriving anyone of "life, liberty, or property" a guarantee againast unfair government action.
What amendments are known as the Civil War amendments? What did they do?
13=outlawed slavery
14=black or white, citizens of US and the state they came from
15=African American men the right to vote
What happened in Harris v. Forklift?
Workers do not have to prove that offensive actions make them unable to do their jobs, only if environment is hostile or abusive.
What did the American with Disabilities Act of 1990 do?
Prohibits employment discrimination and requires that reasonable efforts be made to make places accessible to the disabled.
What happened in the 1930's that made it clear to most people that the market economy would suffer periodic changes?
The Great Depression
Do most government in modern capitalist societies play a substantial role in managing and directing their economies?
No they let them solve themselves "naturally"
What is a social welfare state?
programs that protect the minimum standards of living families and individuals against loss of income due to economic instability, old age, illness, etc.
What is the objective of macroeconomic policy?
encouage economic growth, low employment, and stable prices
What do government fiscal policies involve?
Government spending and taxes
What did Pres. Bush say about consulting America's allies in his 2002 State of the Union address?
The dramatic shift in American Foreign policy. Vowed to continue no matter the cost in war.
How much influence does the general public have on foreign policymaking?
Public is more concerned with domestic issues other than foreign issues. Role with trade, immigration, environment, and corporate behavior=public important
What other countries were involved in negotiations over The North American Free Trade Agreement?
Canada and Mexico
Where does the US stand in terms of the number of weapons it sells every year?
Number 1
Who is the commander-in-chief of the US armed forces?
The President of the US
What department runs American emassies abroad?
The Defense Department
What area does Congress play a more active role in, foreign or domestic affairs?
domestic affairs
Does foreign policy usually correspond with what the public wants?
Not usually, but high involvement of the public in general and in interest groups helped shape foreign policy.
What did the Ninth District Court of Appearls recently decide regarding the Pledge of Allegiance and parental rights?
Unconstitutional to say under God in the pledge of allegiance. Parents are not the sole distributors of sex info to children.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Power of Judicial Review. Precedent important, supreme court no power.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Right to counsel, 6th amendment passed and his rights were violated (The movie)
Betts v. Brady (1962)
Overturned bc/ of Gideon v. Wainwright. Entitled to counsel, but states determine circumstances.
Justice Black
desented in Betts v. Brady. Did not agree bc/ validity is important.
Miller v. California (1973)
3 pt. test, is naked body art or porn? Freedom of expression (1st amendment)
Justice Potter Steward
"I know it when I see it."
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Freedom of expression, ok to burn the flag
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
unconstitutional, gay rights, breaking/entering house. discriminatory bc/ of right to privacy.
Kelo v. City of New London (2005)
5-4, give land to priv. developer with eminent domain (best outlook for community)