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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
the division of a legislature into two separate assemblies
one of the people represented by a legislator or other elected or appointed official
an agreement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other's bills.
kind of like alliances on survivor
personal work for constituents by members of congress
a person who hears and investigates complaints by private individuals against public officials or agencies
employing unlimited debatges as a blocking tactic
the drawing of legislative district boundary lines for the purpose of obtaining partisan or factional advantage

drawing the boundaries to favor some
(up to state legislature to draw the boundaries)
discharge petition
a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may be forced (discharged) out of a committee that had refused to report it for consideration by the House.
standing committee
a permanent committee in the House or Senate that considers bills within a certain subject area
12th ammendment
certify election of a president and vice president or choose these officers if no candidate has a majority of the electoral vote
war powers resolution
a law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval
civil service
a collective term for the body of employees working for the government
commander in chief
the idle of president as supreme commander of the military forces of the US
a formal postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed by a court of law
a release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime
advice and consent
terms in the constition describing the US Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments
state of the union address
an annual message to congress in which the president proposes a legislative program

(Article II Section 3)
the practice of rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts
emergency powers
an inherent power exercised by the president during a period of national crisis
an action by the house of representatives to accuse the president, VP, or other civil officers of the US of committing "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."
executive privilege
the right of executive officials to withhold information form or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee
executive order
a rule or regulation issued by the president that had the effect of law
an advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions. The cabinet includes the heads of 15 executive departments and others named by the president.
kitchen cabinet
the informal advisors to the president
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
a division of the executive office of the President. The OMB assists the president in preparing the annual budget, clearing and coordinating departmental agency budgets, and supervising the administration of the budget.
National Security Council (NSC)
An agency in the Executive office of the President that advises the president on national security.
a large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions
weberian model
a model of bureaucracy developed by sociologist Max Weber, who viewed bureaucracies as rational, hierarchal organizations in which decisions are based on logical reasoning
the act by which an industry being regulated by a government agency gains direct or indirect control over agency personnel and decision makers
spoils system
the awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends
government corporation
an agency of government that administers a quasi-business enterprise
independent regulatory commission
an agency outside the major executive departments charged with making and implementing rules and regulations
civil service commission
the initial central personnel agency of the national government, created in 1883.
sunshine law
a law that requires all multiheaded federal agencies to conduct their business regularly in public session
pendleton act
an act that established the principle of employment on the basis of merit and created the Civil Service Commission to administer personnel service.
sunset legislation
laws requiring that existing programs be reviewed regularly for their effectiveness and be terminated unless specifically extended as a result of these reviews
iron triangle
the three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or presserve policies that benefit their respective interests.
someone who brings to public attention gross governmental inefficiency or illegal action
case law
judicial interpretations of common law principles and doctrines, as well as interpretations of constitutional law, statutory law, and administrative law
the authority of a court to decide certain cases.

(Article II Section 1)
federal question
a question that pertains to the US constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. A federal question provides basis for federal jurisdiction.
class action suit
a law suit filed by an individual seeking damages for "all persons similarly situated
rule of four
a US Supreme Court procedure by which four justices must vote to grant a petition for the case to come before the full Court.
Writ of Certiorari
an order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review
judicial activism
a doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should take an active role by using its powers to check the activities of governmental bodies when those bodies exceed their authority.
majority opinion
a court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges.
concurring opinion
a separate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the decision of the majority of the court but who wants to make a particular point.
dissenting opinion
a separate opinion in which a judge dissents from the conclusion reached by the majority of the court
to declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand
judicial restraint
a doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should defer to the decisions made by the elected representatives of the people in the legislative and executive branches
political question
an issue that the court believes should be decided by the executive or legislative branch
INS v. Chadha (1983)
Bowling Green University, he had a visa to go to school. He was from Kenya, when his visa ended, Kenya didn't want him. President said he could stay in the US, but congress struck it down with a legislative veto. Chadha took it to court, and they found that the legislative veto was unconstitutional and Chadha could stay in the US.
to annul or make void a court ruling on account of some error or irregularity
to send a case back to the court that originally heard it.
the redistribution of seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years according to the census.
the redrawing of boundaries after the census.
1975 Kirkpatrick sale
"The power shift" population in the South will grow, political power of the South will grow.
Colgrove v. Green (1946)
Illinois failed to redraw the boundaries since 1901. Kenneth Colgrove was a political science professor for Northwestern who noticed that. He sued govenor Green under the 14th ammendment-equal protection. Supreme Court said, "You're asking us to answer a political question, not a legal question.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
Tennessee failed to redraw the boundaries since 1901. That is not a political question, that is a constitutional question. "One person, one vote." under the 14th ammendment.
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
Should the upper house be redrawn so that one person's vote equals another person's vote. Supreme Court said yes because failure to do so would violate equal protection under the 14th ammendment. Supreme Court said state not same as federal. State legislators got together to overturn Reynolds v. Sims.
Gomillion V. Lightfoot (1960)
Alabama state legislature told Tuskeegee to redraw the boundary and the new boundary that was a 28 sided figure and it excluded all but 4 African Americans. Racial Gerrymandering. Gomillion brought a law suit against Lightfoot and US Supreme Court ruled in Gomillion's favor saying it violated 15th Ammendment. Constitution is what the justices say it is.
Shaw v. Reno (1993)
Only white males in Congress. 1982 Congress passed a law requires after 1992 state legislature will redraw congressional boundaries so that the boundaries reflect ethnic representation.
Created majority minority districts in congress.
delegate role
mirror the beliefs of people who elect them
trustee role
you've entrusted me with your vote and I will do what I think is in your best interest.
franking privilage
mail out for free
executive privilage
president doesnt have to testify
US v. Nixon (1974)
Congress wanted him to surrender the tapes. He said no under executive privelage. The court ruled against him--you can't use executive privelage for criminal acts, only national security.
Diplomatic Recognition
the formal acknowledgement of a foreign government as legitimate
25th ammendment
a 1967 ammendment to the constitution that establishes procedures for filing presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential disabilities
any administrative system but especially a government agency that carries out policy on a day to day basis
max weber
he said that as government became more complex the bureaucracy would grow
1) hierarchy
2) hire on merit
3) well-defined division of labor
4) standard procedures
continuing resolution
a temporary law that congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on October 1.
justiciable question
a question that may be raised and reviewed in court
Fiscal year (FY)
a twelve-month period that is used for bookkeeping, or accounting, purposes. Usually, the fiscal year does not coincide with the calendar year. For example, the federal government's fiscal year runs from October 1 through September 30.
joint committee
a legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of congress.
the redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within a state
conference committee
a special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of congress in different forms.
a formal declaration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. Some authorizations terminate in a year; others are renewable automatically without further congressional action
discharge petition
a procedure by which a bill in the House of Representatives may be forced out of a committee that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The discharge petition must be signed by an absolute majority of representatives and is used only on rare occasions.
Speaker of the House
the presiding officer in the House of Representatives. The speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the most powerful and influential member of the House.
Common law
judge-made law that originated in England from decisions shaped according to prevailing customs. Decisions were applied to similiar situations and thus gradually became common to the nation.
stare decisis
to stand on decided cases; the judicial policy of following precedents established by past decisions.
senatorial courtesy
in federal district court judgeship nominations, a Senate tradition allowing a senator of the president's political party to veto a judicial appointment in his or her state by indicating that the appointment is personally not acceptable. At that point, the Senate may reject the nomination, or the president may withdraw consideration of the nominee