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22 Cards in this Set

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Sovereignty (O’Neil)
The ability of states to carry out actions and policies within a territory independently from external rivals
Institutions
Organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake.
Comparative Method
Seeking the general in the particular as a means of explanation
Post-behavioralism
Rejection of grand theory and includes a critique of modernization theory as biased and inaccurate.
Unitary state:
Invests most of the political power at the national level, with limited local authority.
Totalitarianism
Mussolini’s Italy is often described an example of this type, but does not fully fit O’Neill’s definition even though it had aspirations in this direction.
Clientelism
The state co-opts members of the public by providing special benefits or favors to a single person or small groups in return for public support. Often seen in Africa.
Patrimonialism
A ruler depends on a collection of supporters within the state who gain direct benefits in return for enforcing the ruler’s will (example, Zaire).
Republicanism
Emphasizes the separation of powers within a state and the representation of the public through elected official (as opposed to monarchy).
Rule of Law
Liberal democracies create a condition in which the public and those in power respect and abide by the rules and norms of the democratic regime.
State
It “seeks to wield the majority of force within a given territory, establishing order and deterring challengers from inside and out. In doing so, it provides security for its subjects by limiting the danger of external attack and internal crime and disorder.”
Consociation (Lijphart and Elazar)
Within a centralized state there are quasi-federal unions of ethnic, tribal religious, or ideological groups that are not organized along territorial lines but still have “corporate characteristics of their own, and have been able to secure constitutional arrangements designed to preserve their respective integrities within a common polity.”
Supranationalism
It refers to the efforts on the part of two or more countries to voluntarily limit their individual state’s sovereignty by establishing a decision-making structures over and above their own national government
European Parliament
This EU institution has limited authority and cannot raise revenues but did force the resignation of the commission and the president because of widely reported corruption.
Colonialism
An imperialist system of physically occupying another country using military force, business, or settlers.
Supermajorities
Lijphart terms that demonstrates the possibility for minority interests to veto a change.
Bureaucracy
A hierarchical organization of officials appointed to carry out certain public objectives.
European Commission
The most supranational of the EU bodies; proposes and enforces the common EU laws/policies; can negotiate certain treaties. It CANNOT make final decision regarding new EU law since that right is still in the hands of individual EU governments. After the last enlargement there are 25 members. These are appointed positions known as EU Commissioners and this includes the president. They are selected by the EU states but approved by the European Parliament. Aim: The expectations for the commissioners: They are supposed to act independently of their national governments and have also taken a pledge to place “the general interest of the Community” ahead of any member country.
Council of EU
MAIN decision-making body of the EU; holds regular meeting of the CABINET MINISTERS of member states; organized along 9 functional committees. Aim: To protect the sovereign rights of member states through an inclusive process called INTERGOVERNMENTALISM. Weighted majority voting and unanimity are utilized. The President of Council of the EU is on 6 month rotations
European Council
This Council includes the HEADS of government (or state) with the President of European Commission. Meets two times a year and makes final decisions and charts the future of the organization. These chief executives must balance individual countries’ needs with EU needs. They, for example, implement “Common Foreigh and Security Policy”.
European Court of Justice (EJC)
Member states appoint judges to a court. Aim: to issue rulings and legal interpretations in cases involving EU institutions, member governments, private businesses, associations (such as trade unions) and individuals in matters related to the European Community Law.
Highlight: At times it can take precedence over a member nation’s law; hence a supranational influence.
Authoritarianism
A political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being responsible to the public.