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129 Cards in this Set

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CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY
Reapportionment (redistribution)
Redistribution of representatives among the states, based on population change. Congress is rapportioned after each census.
Impeachment
The formal charging of a government official with treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Incumbent
A current officeholder.
Gerrymandering
Redrawing a congressional district to intentionally benefit one political party.
Franking privilege
A resource available to members of Congress to send mail free of charge. These mailings work to make constituents aware of their legislator's names, activities, and a complishments. (60 days before reelection)
Casework
Much of the work performed by the large staffs of members of Congress. Solving problems for constituents, especially problems involving governemtn agencies.
Policy representation
Legislators try to do what constituents want them to do in regards to policy (e.g., environment, tax polciy)
Descriptive representation
A belief that constituents are most effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. (Race is a majore issue)
Racial gerrymandering
The drawing of a legislative district to maximize the chances that a minority candidate will win election. (Shaw v. Reno)
Bill
A proposal for a new law.
Agenda
1) a narrow, formal list of things to be done, such as a calendar of bills to be voted on, and (2) the broad, imprecise, and unwritten set of all the issues an instituion is considering.
Veto
The president's disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress. Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in each house.
Pocket veto
A means of killing a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress, in which the president does not sign the bill and Congress adjourns within ten days of the bill's passage.
Legislation Overview
After a bill is introduced in either house, it is assigned to the committee with jurisdiction over that policy area. The bill is then usually referred to a specialized subcommittee. The original bill usually is modified or revised. If passed, it is sent to the full committee. If approved it is sent to the entire membership of the chamber, where is is debated, amended, and either passed or defeated..pg 213.
Legislative Process
(1) House / Senate (2) Subcommittee (3) Committee (4) Rules Committee (no Senate) (5) Full House (6) Conference Committee (7) Full House / Full Senate (8) President
Four types of committees
(1) Standing committee (2) Select Committee (3) Joint Committee (4) Conference Committee
Standing Committee
They process the bulk of the bills. A permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular legislative area. A major predominant committee. (Senate: 16, House: 20)…Each committee has a sub-committee.
Subcommittee
They study the bill, hold hearings, and debate provisions. (e.g., the House Agriculture committee has five subcommittees, for crops, livestock and horticulture.)
Joint committees
A committee made up of members of both the House and the Senate. They study issues, do investigations, and provide oversite of bureaucracy. They are weaker than the standing committees because they are restricted from reporting bills to the House or Senate.
Select committee
A temporary congressional committee created for a specific purpose and disbanded after that purpose is fulfilled. Cannot write legislation.
Conference committee
A temporary committee created to work out differences between the House and Senate versions of a specific piece of legislation. Able to prcess legislation.
Rules committee
Bills coming out of House go to the Rules committee before going before the full House membership. They attach a rule to the bill that governs the coming floor debate, specifying the length of the debate, etc..
Seniority
Years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee. In their quest for expertise and seniority, members tend to stay on the same committees, once appointed.
Markup sessions
The meetings at which subcommittees and committees actually debate and amend legislation.
Oversight
The process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as Congress intended. (e.g., hearings, requesting reports from specific agencies)
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Representatives; a constitutional officer. ( Dennis Hastert).
House minority leader
The Speaker's counterpart in the opposing party.
President of Senate
The constitution makes the vice president of the U.S. the president of the Senate (Dick Chaney). But only visits the Senate chamber if there is a possibility of a tie vote, in which case he can break the tie.
President pro tempore
(president "for the time") is supposed to chair the Senate in the vice president's absence. Usually the senator of the majority party with the longest continuous tenure.
Majority leader
The real power in the Senate. The head of the majority party in the Senate; the second highest ranking member of the majority party in the House. (equivalent toe the speaker of House).
Minority leader
The top position in the opposing party in the Senate.
Filibuster
A delaying tactic, used in the Senate, that often involves speechmaking to prevent action on a piece of legislation. (need cloture to end it)
Cloture
The mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the Senate. A petition signed by 16 senators "initiates" a cloture vote. It takes the votes of sixty (3/5s) senators to invoke cloture which creates a time limit for the debate.
Constituents
People who live and vote in a government official's district or state.
Trustee
A prepresentative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those view if he or she believes they are misguided. (legislator's good judgement) "Edmund Burke" believed this. Most will vote this way if "personal"
(Instructed) delegate
A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents, regardless of his or her own view. Most will vote this way for "economic issues" or issues that concern their constituents.
Palitico
Legislators don't adhere to either trustee or delegate view; their view is in between.
Parliamentary system
A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major party of the ruling coalition.
Incumbency Advantages
(1) The way districts are drawn (2) Name Recognition (3) casework (4) campaign financing
Determines how Voters vote
(1) Partanship (2) Well known name
Contribute to name recognition
(1) gerrymandering (2) franking privilege (3) casework (4) capaign money
The way legislators view their job
(1) Instructed delegates (2) Trustee
CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY
Reapportionment (redistribution)
Redistribution of representatives among the states, based on population change. Congress is rapportioned after each census.
Impeachment
The formal charging of a government official with treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Incumbent
A current officeholder.
Gerrymandering
Redrawing a congressional district to intentionally benefit one political party.
Franking privilege
A resource available to members of Congress to send mail free of charge. These mailings work to make constituents aware of their legislator's names, activities, and a complishments. (60 days before reelection)
Casework
Much of the work performed by the large staffs of members of Congress. Solving problems for constituents, especially problems involving governemtn agencies.
Policy representation
Legislators try to do what constituents want them to do in regards to policy (e.g., environment, tax polciy)
Descriptive representation
A belief that constituents are most effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. (Race is a majore issue)
Racial gerrymandering
The drawing of a legislative district to maximize the chances that a minority candidate will win election. (Shaw v. Reno)
Bill
A proposal for a new law.
Agenda
1) a narrow, formal list of things to be done, such as a calendar of bills to be voted on, and (2) the broad, imprecise, and unwritten set of all the issues an instituion is considering.
Veto
The president's disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress. Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in each house.
Pocket veto
A means of killing a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress, in which the president does not sign the bill and Congress adjourns within ten days of the bill's passage.
Legislation Overview
After a bill is introduced in either house, it is assigned to the committee with jurisdiction over that policy area. The bill is then usually referred to a specialized subcommittee. The original bill usually is modified or revised. If passed, it is sent to the full committee. If approved it is sent to the entire membership of the chamber, where is is debated, amended, and either passed or defeated..pg 213.
Legislative Process
(1) House / Senate (2) Subcommittee (3) Committee (4) Rules Committee (no Senate) (5) Full House (6) Conference Committee (7) Full House / Full Senate (8) President
Four types of committees
(1) Standing committee (2) Select Committee (3) Joint Committee (4) Conference Committee
Standing Committee
They process the bulk of the bills. A permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular legislative area. A major predominant committee. (Senate: 16, House: 20)…Each committee has a sub-committee.
Subcommittee
They study the bill, hold hearings, and debate provisions. (e.g., the House Agriculture committee has five subcommittees, for crops, livestock and horticulture.)
Joint committees
A committee made up of members of both the House and the Senate. They study issues, do investigations, and provide oversite of bureaucracy. They are weaker than the standing committees because they are restricted from reporting bills to the House or Senate.
Select committee
A temporary congressional committee created for a specific purpose and disbanded after that purpose is fulfilled. Cannot write legislation.
Conference committee
A temporary committee created to work out differences between the House and Senate versions of a specific piece of legislation. Able to prcess legislation.
Rules committee
Bills coming out of House go to the Rules committee before going before the full House membership. They attach a rule to the bill that governs the coming floor debate, specifying the length of the debate, etc..
Seniority
Years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee. In their quest for expertise and seniority, members tend to stay on the same committees, once appointed.
Markup sessions
The meetings at which subcommittees and committees actually debate and amend legislation.
Oversight
The process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as Congress intended. (e.g., hearings, requesting reports from specific agencies)
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Representatives; a constitutional officer. ( Dennis Hastert).
House minority leader
The Speaker's counterpart in the opposing party.
President of Senate
The constitution makes the vice president of the U.S. the president of the Senate (Dick Chaney). But only visits the Senate chamber if there is a possibility of a tie vote, in which case he can break the tie.
President pro tempore
(president "for the time") is supposed to chair the Senate in the vice president's absence. Usually the senator of the majority party with the longest continuous tenure.
Majority leader
The real power in the Senate. The head of the majority party in the Senate; the second highest ranking member of the majority party in the House. (equivalent toe the speaker of House).
Minority leader
The top position in the opposing party in the Senate.
Filibuster
A delaying tactic, used in the Senate, that often involves speechmaking to prevent action on a piece of legislation. (need cloture to end it)
Cloture
The mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the Senate. A petition signed by 16 senators "initiates" a cloture vote. It takes the votes of sixty (3/5s) senators to invoke cloture which creates a time limit for the debate.
Constituents
People who live and vote in a government official's district or state.
Trustee
A prepresentative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those view if he or she believes they are misguided. (legislator's good judgement) "Edmund Burke" believed this. Most will vote this way if "personal"
(Instructed) delegate
A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents, regardless of his or her own view. Most will vote this way for "economic issues" or issues that concern their constituents.
Palitico
Legislators don't adhere to either trustee or delegate view; their view is in between.
Parliamentary system
A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major party of the ruling coalition.
Incumbency Advantages
(1) The way districts are drawn (2) Name Recognition (3) casework (4) campaign financing
Determines how Voters vote
(1) Partanship (2) Well known name
Contribute to name recognition
(1) gerrymandering (2) franking privilege (3) casework (4) capaign money
The way legislators view their job
(1) Instructed delegates (2) Trustee
CHAPTER 8 VOCABULARY
Reapportionment (redistribution)
Redistribution of representatives among the states, based on population change. Congress is rapportioned after each census.
Impeachment
The formal charging of a government official with treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Incumbent
A current officeholder.
Gerrymandering
Redrawing a congressional district to intentionally benefit one political party.
Franking privilege
A resource available to members of Congress to send mail free of charge. These mailings work to make constituents aware of their legislator's names, activities, and a complishments. (60 days before reelection)
Casework
Much of the work performed by the large staffs of members of Congress. Solving problems for constituents, especially problems involving governemtn agencies.
Policy representation
Legislators try to do what constituents want them to do in regards to policy (e.g., environment, tax polciy)
Descriptive representation
A belief that constituents are most effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race, ethnicity, religion, or gender. (Race is a majore issue)
Racial gerrymandering
The drawing of a legislative district to maximize the chances that a minority candidate will win election. (Shaw v. Reno)
Bill
A proposal for a new law.
Agenda
1) a narrow, formal list of things to be done, such as a calendar of bills to be voted on, and (2) the broad, imprecise, and unwritten set of all the issues an instituion is considering.
Veto
The president's disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress. Congress can override a veto with a two-thirds vote in each house.
Pocket veto
A means of killing a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress, in which the president does not sign the bill and Congress adjourns within ten days of the bill's passage.
Legislation Overview
After a bill is introduced in either house, it is assigned to the committee with jurisdiction over that policy area. The bill is then usually referred to a specialized subcommittee. The original bill usually is modified or revised. If passed, it is sent to the full committee. If approved it is sent to the entire membership of the chamber, where is is debated, amended, and either passed or defeated..pg 213.
Legislative Process
(1) House / Senate (2) Subcommittee (3) Committee (4) Rules Committee (no Senate) (5) Full House (6) Conference Committee (7) Full House / Full Senate (8) President
Four types of committees
(1) Standing committee (2) Select Committee (3) Joint Committee (4) Conference Committee
Standing Committee
They process the bulk of the bills. A permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular legislative area. A major predominant committee. (Senate: 16, House: 20)…Each committee has a sub-committee.
Subcommittee
They study the bill, hold hearings, and debate provisions. (e.g., the House Agriculture committee has five subcommittees, for crops, livestock and horticulture.)
Joint committees
A committee made up of members of both the House and the Senate. They study issues, do investigations, and provide oversite of bureaucracy. They are weaker than the standing committees because they are restricted from reporting bills to the House or Senate.
Select committee
A temporary congressional committee created for a specific purpose and disbanded after that purpose is fulfilled. Cannot write legislation.
Conference committee
A temporary committee created to work out differences between the House and Senate versions of a specific piece of legislation. Able to prcess legislation.
Rules committee
Bills coming out of House go to the Rules committee before going before the full House membership. They attach a rule to the bill that governs the coming floor debate, specifying the length of the debate, etc..
Seniority
Years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee. In their quest for expertise and seniority, members tend to stay on the same committees, once appointed.
Markup sessions
The meetings at which subcommittees and committees actually debate and amend legislation.
Oversight
The process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as Congress intended. (e.g., hearings, requesting reports from specific agencies)
Speaker of the House
The presiding officer of the House of Representatives; a constitutional officer. ( Dennis Hastert).
House minority leader
The Speaker's counterpart in the opposing party.
President of Senate
The constitution makes the vice president of the U.S. the president of the Senate (Dick Chaney). But only visits the Senate chamber if there is a possibility of a tie vote, in which case he can break the tie.
President pro tempore
(president "for the time") is supposed to chair the Senate in the vice president's absence. Usually the senator of the majority party with the longest continuous tenure.
Majority leader
The real power in the Senate. The head of the majority party in the Senate; the second highest ranking member of the majority party in the House. (equivalent toe the speaker of House).
Minority leader
The top position in the opposing party in the Senate.
Filibuster
A delaying tactic, used in the Senate, that often involves speechmaking to prevent action on a piece of legislation. (need cloture to end it)
Cloture
The mechanism by which a filibuster is cut off in the Senate. A petition signed by 16 senators "initiates" a cloture vote. It takes the votes of sixty (3/5s) senators to invoke cloture which creates a time limit for the debate.
Constituents
People who live and vote in a government official's district or state.
Trustee
A prepresentative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those view if he or she believes they are misguided. (legislator's good judgement) "Edmund Burke" believed this. Most will vote this way if "personal"
(Instructed) delegate
A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents, regardless of his or her own view. Most will vote this way for "economic issues" or issues that concern their constituents.
Palitico
Legislators don't adhere to either trustee or delegate view; their view is in between.
Parliamentary system
A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major party of the ruling coalition.
Incumbency Advantages
(1) The way districts are drawn (2) Name Recognition (3) casework (4) campaign financing
Determines how Voters vote
(1) Partanship (2) Well known name
Contribute to name recognition
(1) gerrymandering (2) franking privilege (3) casework (4) capaign money
The way legislators view their job
(1) Instructed delegates (2) Trustee