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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Principle of Comparative Advantage
Principle holds that the best way for countries to achieve prosperity is to trade those things they can't produce most competitively and buy those things that other countries produce most effiently in terms of cost
e.g. slideshow example
Bretton Woods System
Set of rules that would govern the economic relations between member countries through a fixed exchange rate system
Washington Consensus
Suggests that market liberalization of trade, privatization of government owned industries, and deregulation of financial markets will lead to greater prosperity and sustainable economic development.
Paradox of Plenty
Increased wealth creation is accompanied by increased destitution
Relative Poverty
Concerns the unequal distribution of income within a given society; suggests that a person may be able to acquire adequate food, clothing and shelter but that this exhausts their resources, leaving nothing for other things, such as telephone, transportation or even reading materials
Absolute Poverty
Denotes a condition of extreme distitution, in which a person's income and living standards are so inadequaet that they lack the most basic neccessities for survival, such as food, water, shelter.
Poor Laws
Served as disciplinary mechanisms to get the poor off the streets and into the poor houses, where they could be taught the value of work.
A group of citizens whose policy interests are of relevant concern to those who govern, and hence, warrant attention by public officials
Plurality Rule
Candidate required to win more votes than any other competitor
Simple Majority Rule
Candidate must win at least one vote more than the sum of the votes that any other competitors won
The unfair overrepresentation of one interest or group at the expense of another
Plurality Decision Rule
Winner is that candidate or party that receives more votes than any other opponent does; often combined with single member districts and a simple candidate ballot, creating a FPTP electoral system
Single Transferrable Vote (STV) or Hare System
Voters choose among candidates, not parties; they rank these candidates in order of preference, and votes are transferred among candidates on the basis of these rankings.
e.g. Irish Dail, Australian Senate, Malta's House of Representatives, Belfast Assembly in N. Ireland
Constitutive Representation
Meaning is given to the interest by defining who is being represented
Delegate Model
Stresses the importance of responsiveness, mirroring as best as possible the interests of the represented
Trustee Model
Rejects the suggestion that good political representation is merely responsive representation; instead, works together with elected officials to find solutions for the common good
Plebiscitarian Democracy
Combines a delegate model of representation with the regular use of referenda - the people voting directly on key policy issues - and mechanisms of recall that allow citizens to, in essence, fire their elected representative if that representative in unresponsive and fails to accurately reflect public opinion.
4 types of Representation
1) Electoral Systems
2) Legislatures
3) Political Parties
4) Groups and Movements
Brokerage Parties
Elsewhere, called "catch all parties," and rather than committing themselves to the representation of particular societal interests, and present themselves as champions of the broader public interest
Includes language, customs and manners, dress, rituals, behavioral conventions, and religion and other systems of beliefs. Precisely because it is collective, a human creation, and interited, it has long been of interst to those who study human and social and poloitical life.
Three distinct types of attitudes people have about their own role in the political process: parochial
People do not expect to participate, and do not make any demands
Three distinct types of attitudes people have about their own role in the political process: subject
People have no expectation of being politically active, but they do expect the system will provide them with the goods and services they want;
Three distinct types of attitudes people have about their own role in the political process: participant
People feel they can play an active role, and expect the political systsem will deliver in return
Civic Culture
Created by Almond and Verba
-Argue that the best political system has a "civic culture" which embodies a balance between democracy (as opposed to authoritarianism) and stability (as opposed to instability)
-Presume that too much civic activism creates instability
-Critisized for being ethnocentric and ahistorical
Refers to a different, or distinctive, shared way of life within the natural cultural setting, characterizing a smaller grouping of people within a country.
Political Socialization...agents?
The way individuals actually internalized political values.
Agents of political socialization include:
-Family, media, educational institutions, political parties
Ideological State Apparatuses
French marxist thinker Louis Althusser
argued that under capitalism, people are conditioned through ideology that is passed on to them through ISAs, such as schools, parties, unions, communications, literature, arts and the family
Coined by Gramsci
Persistance of a capitalist system is largely achieved by the Bourgeoisie's ideological domination of the working class
Conveys the core notion of systematic gender inequality, whether in the household or in the broader domains of economic and public life.
Biological Determinism
The belief that a woman's nature, and all of her possibilities are determined by her biology
symbolic representation
concrete embodiment of what is to be represented
e.g. pope
descriptive representation
government should be a microcosm of the broader society
e.g. if 50% women in society, 50% women should be in the legislature
formalistic representation
because we have elections, a formal decision making process, it MUST be representative
social movements
Informal networks of individuals and groups, primarily instructed in bringing about societal change by influencing our ideas and behaviors
Voters have two votes; one for the constituency rep, and one for the party
mixed electoral system
the BC assembly for political reform recently suggested this type of voting, but it was rejected
single transferrable vote
Hare system
Intersectionality holds that the classical models of oppression within a society, such as those based on race/ethnicity; gender, religion, sexuality, class, disability and other markers of difference do not act independent of one another. Instead, these forms of oppression interrelate, based on which markers apply to a given individual (and derives its name from this intersection of forms of oppression). Intersectionality thus holds that knowing, for example, that a woman lives in a sexist society is insufficient information to describe her experience; instead, it is also necessary to know her race, her sexual orientation, her class, etc.
volker shock
In 1978, Paul Volker, Chairman of the Fed, raises interest rates to combat inflation. After the Fed raises the national interest rate (Volker shock), the offshore banks do the same; the variable interest on those $ loans made to developing countries now increases…RAPIDLY!
Two types of non-proportional systems
Plurality > Canada's system
Candidate with more votes than any other candidate wins
Majority > Canadidate must win a majority (50%+1) to win; 3 main types : Runoff (France) Plurality system (French legislature); Alternative (Conservative Leadership Campaign, Australian House of Commons)
Example of Plurality system
Example of Majority Runoff system
Example of Majority - Plurality System
French Legislature
Example of Majority - Alternative
Conservative Leadership Campaign
Australian House of Commons
Proportional Representation
Seats allocated in rough proportion of popular vote, in relation to district magnitude.
e.g. Israel - 1 district
2 main models of proportional representation
List System (Closed/Open)
Single Transferrable Vote System
Closed List System (PR)
Voters choose party only
Open list system (PR)
Voters select specific candidates from parties
In this system, voters have 2 votes, one for constituency representative, and a second for the party
Mixed electoral systems
Brokerage, or "catch all" parties tend to lead toward hat type of system?
Trustee model system
These parties are advocates for a particular position first (NDP, Greens, etc.)
Interest Groups
Organizations that act to influence the content and direction of public policy w/o seeking to hold formal or legislative or executive power
Key Fxns of Elections?
1) Decide who will govern
2) Ensure accountability
3) Choose political reps
4) Grant legitimacy to govt
5) Provide govts policy mandate
6) Opportunity for political education, mobillization and socialization
Key components of the electoral process
Constituencies - Grp of people that politicans have decided their intersts are relevant to them
Participation - Set of laws that govern who can participate, run and why.
Microcosm model
Representation through group difference; no matter how integrated a man is in women's issues, they can no way take on issues as a woman herself