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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An individual, usually outside government, who actively promotes a political party, philosophy, or issue he or she cares personally about.
Australian ballot
An election ballot of uniform size printed by the government and cast in secret.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who not only vote but like to get involved in campaign activities as well. The are better educated than the average voter, but what distinguishes them most is their interest in the conflicts of politics, their clear party identification, and their willingness to take strong positions.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who tend to reserve their energies for community activities of a nonpartisan kind. Their education and income are similar to those of campaigners
complete activists
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who are highly educated, have high incomes, and tend to be middle-aged rather than young or old. These people participate in all forms of politics and account for 11 percent of the population.
Fifteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment that guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or pervious condition of slavery.
grandfather clause
A state law allowing people to vote, even if they did not meet legal requirements, if an ancestor had voted before 1867. The clause was used as a vehicle to enable poor and illiterate whites to vote while excluding blacks (who had no ancestor voting prior to 1867). Such clauses were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who rarely vote, do not get involved in organizations, and do not even talk much about politics. They account for about 22 percent of the population.
literacy test
A state law requiring potential voters to demonstrate reading skills. The laws were frequently implemented in a discriminatory fashion to prevent otherwise qualified blacks from voting. These tests were suspended by the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
motor-voter bill
A law passed by Congress in 1993 that requires states to allow people to register to vote when applying for a driver's license and to provide registration through the mail and at some state offices that serve the disabled and provide public assistance. The law took effect in 1995.
Nineteenth Amendment
An amendment to the Constitution allowing women the right to vote.
parochial participants
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who do not vote and stay out of election campaigns and civic associations, but who are willing to contact local officials about specific, often personal, problems.
poll tax
A state tax paid prior to voting. The tax was designed to prevent blacks from voting since poor whites were usually exempted through a grandfather clause. Poll taxes have been made illegal.
registered voters
People who are eligible to vote in an election and who have signed up with the government to vote.
Twenty-sixth Amendment
The 1971 constitutional amendment that lowered the voting age in both state and federal elections to eighteen. Congress had attempted to achieve this goal through legislation, but the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had no authority to do so with respect to state elections.
Twenty-third Amendment
The 1961 constitutional amendment permitting residents of Washington, D.C., to vote in presidential elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The federal law that suspended the use of literacy tests in elections and authorized federal examiners to order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50 percent of the voting-age population were registered or had voted in the last presidential election.
voting-age population
The percentage of people in a country who are eligible to vote because they satisfy the minimum age requirement.
voting specialists
According to Sidney Verba and Norman Nie, people who vote but participate in little else politically. They tend not to have much schooling or income, and to be substantially older than the average person.
white primary
The exclusion of blacks from voting in the primary elections of political parties. Such primaries were employed largely in the South where the Democratic party won almost all general elections. In effect, winning the Democratic primary meant winning the election. The Supreme Court voided the use of white primaries.