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124 Cards in this Set

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"What is government itself but the greatest of all reflections of human nature?"
James Madison
"Men should not think it slavery to live to according to the rule of the government for it is their salvation."
Aristotle
Politics is derived from the word ____ which means ____
Polis; The city or a place where groups of people come together
Earliest meaning of Polis from Ancient Greek
The walled fortress or fortified place
AcroPOLIS
High City or Highest City; upon a plateau
Translated as "the laboring class," the poor, or the lower class.
Demos
Politics is close to the Greek word _____ translated as ______. Also the word ______ as ______
Politics is close to the Greek word POLITIKOS translated as THE LAWMAKERS Also the word POLITEIA as CONSTITUTION.
"Man is by nature a political animal and it is a characteristic of man that he alone has any sense of good and evil, just and unjust."
Aristotle on politics
"Who gets what, when, and how."
Harold D. Lasswell's definition of politics
"The process of transforming conflict into compromise."
Dr. Novotny's defintion of politics
Politics arises from differences in opinion on specific issues which includes, but is not limited to:
The allocation of limited or scarce resources
"To govern is to choose."
John F. Kennedy
"It gennerally considered obvious that government should not, indeed, cannot legislate morality. But, infact, it does so frequently, it should do so more often, and it never does anything more important."
George F. Will
Congress shall make no law inhibiting ______
Rights
Congress shall make no law inhibiting ______
Rights
A protection by and responsibility to government
Voting
Citizenship is the right to protections _____ and _____ government.
BY and FROM
Constituting 44% of 2007's federal budget.
Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security.
It is the responsibility of citizens to any government policy that "imposes the most severe burdens on the neediest."
Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens
"Justice is the bond of men."
Aristotle
"No government can long stand which is not founded upon justice."
Aristotle
"An injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere."
MLK Jr.
"Justice is the end of government. It always has been and it always will be."
James Madison
"Equal Justice Under Law"
Thomas Jefferson
Country with the oldest surviving constitution. 2nd Oldest.
USA; Norway
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union lasted from ______
March 1781 to March 1789
Properties of the Confederation
unicameral legislature with each state having one vote and unanimous agreements necessary. A weak president and no judicial branch or Bill of Rights.
Cofederation had a currency but...
7/13 majority of states had their own and could not be stopped. It could also not put tariffs on imports.
Fighting over state boundaries as well the AoC was described as...
"on the brink of disaster"
Virginia proposed what?
A president chosen by the senate, a judicial branch also by the senate, and a bicameral congress with the house selecting the senate.
New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland and New York proposed to...
"Revise, correct, and enlarge" the AoC
The Connecticut compromise created...
The popularly elected House of Representatives and the Senate with 2 senators for each state elected by the state legislatures.
Before the Great Compromise what was agreed?
slaves count as 3/5 of population in determining number of seats for a state in House of Reps. 5 states had already abolished slaves before this.
The Constitutional Constitution stipulated this about slaves.
No ban on slave trade until a decade into the future.
George Mason described slavery as...
"a slow poison"
Left the convention at request of governor of NY, George Clinton.
John Lansing and Robert Yates
NY left the convetion because...
Wanted land grabs, tariffs, and to hold the constitution convention in NY.
Maryland's delegates that left the convention.
John Mercer and Luther Martin
Why Maryland's reps left the constitutional convention
3/5's compromise, only 9/13 needed to ratify, lack of a bill of rights, and concern over supreme court
Number of states left at end of constitutional convention
11 of 13
What James Madison called "the most difficult branch"
presidency
One statement of constitutional convention released.
"We have never once thought of a king."
3 of 41 delgates that did not sign
George Mason, Edmund Randolph, Elbridge Gerry
Why the 3 delegates didn't sign the Constitution.
lack of specific protections from government, slave trade issue, power of the presidency and it's pardons, treaties (wanted both houses to approve)
In favor of ratification of the constitution
Federalists
Those against ratification of the constitution
Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalist views
favored more state powers, term limits, worried about bicameralism, wanted recall elections, bill of rights
"Where annual elections end, slavery begins."
Anti-Federalist Pamphlet
"There never was a government over a very extensive country without destroying the liberties of the people."
George Mason
Authors of the Federalist Papers
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison
1st state to demand a bill of rights, followed by these other two.
Massachusetts then Virginia and New York
Rejected the constitution demanding a bill of rights
North Carolina
First to propose a Bill of Rights
Charles Pinkney
Arguments against the Bill of Rights
11/13 already had one
no Bill of Rights under the constitution
too late
"A Bill of Rights is not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution but would even be dangerous."
Alexander Hamilton
"What liberties are protected by your imaginary balances, by your rediculous checks and contrivances?"
Patrick Henry
"I smell a rat."
Patrick Henry
"A Bill of Rights is what people are entitled to against every government and what no just government should refuse."
Thomas Jefferson
Called the Bill of Rights a "distraction," "Not important," and a "dangerous alteration to the Constitution". Then said "Circumstances are now changed."
James Madison
Called upon congress to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution and started the debate
James Madison
Civil liberties are protections ____ the government.
From
Civil rights are protections ____ the government.
By
"It is of great importance not only to guard a society against oppression of its rulers but to guard against the oppression of the other part."
James Madison
"Great is the guilt of an unnecessary war."
John Adams
Signed by John Adams, it forbade "unlawful assembly" and made "writings or defaming or bringing the government into contempt," illegal.
The Sedition Act
Representative from Vermont that was jailed under the Sedition Act and reelected from his cell.
Matthew Lyon
Made it illegal to interfere with the draft or cause disloyalty.
Espionage Act
Socialist that ran for president from prison.
Eugene Dennis
Created after the arrest of over 4000 under the Sedition Act
ACLU
"He who would make his own liberty secure must guard even his own enemy from oppression"
Thomas Paine
The Supreme Court's refusal to apply the Bill of Rights to state and local gov'ts became known as...
dual citizenship
Passed after the McKinley assassination it outlawed "public expressions that government should be overthrown by force or violence"
New York's Criminal Anarchy Act
Jailed under Criminal Anarchy Act for "exciting the citizens of New York to hatred and contempt of the government" in his newspaper, The Revolutionary Age.
Benjamin Gitlow
Case that held the 1st ammendment applied to the states as well and overturned the Criminal Anarchy Act. Also became referred to as this as well: ______
Gitlow vs the State of New York; The 2nd Constitutional Revolution
The Supreme Court overturned his 18 year sentence, on 1st amendment grounds, under a Georgia law for distributing Communist Party literature in Atlanta
Angelo Herndon
Case where the 4th amendment of warrentless searches became applied to states
Mapp vs Ohio
Case where the 5th amendment of protection from self incrimination now would apply to states
Miranda vs Arizona
Connecticut law made it illegal to sell...
contraceptives
Arrested for prescribing "the pill" in New Haven, CT at Planned Parenthood offices.
Estelle Griswald and Dr. Lee Buxton
Established a "right to privacy"
Griswald vs Connecticut
Basis of Griswald vs Connecticut 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 5th zones of privacy
1. right to assembly
3. quartering
4. warrentless searches
5. private property and self incrimination
"We deal with a right to privacy older than the Bill of Rights"
Supreme Court Justice William Douglass
"No soldier has been quartered in any house. There has been no warrantless search and seizure. No one has been compelled to witness against themselves"
Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart
Struck down laws making abortions illegal.
Roe vs. Wade
Signed the Privacy Act and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Amendments (FERPA)
Gerald Ford
19th amendment
womens rights
24th amendment
no poll taxs
26th amendment
18 year vote age
14th amendment
due process
was the 1st check on the states "No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law nor deny equal protection of law."
14th amendment
Made public venues for everyone, and no jury discrimination on race. No mention on education.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
"They have promised us law and abandoned us to anarchy"
Frederick Douglass
"The amendments to the Constitution are a cruel, scandalous, and colossal sham, keeping the promise to the eye and breaking it to the heart."
Frederick Douglass
Made the Civil Rights Act of 1875 "void and unconstitutional"
Robinson vs the Memphis Railroad Company
separate but equal case
Plessy vs Ferguson
Georgia established this for voting
Literacy or Constitution Test
Georgia's racist primary
White Democratic Party Primary
Formed in NY by 60 black and white leaders
NAACP
First case won by NAACP and ended the whites only primary
Smith vs Allwright
Ended segregation in armed forces and military base schools
Exective Order 9981
Reversed Plessy vs Fergusson separate but equal
Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
"This is a step towards national suicide."
GA Governor reaction to Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
Introduce his Civil Rights Bill as a "moral cause". It was stuck in congressional debate and caused the march on Washington
Kennedy
Ended discrimination in public facilities and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Atlanta Motel vs the US
Called for by LBJ after "Bloody Sunday" in Selma, Alabama.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Ended interracial marriage discrimination
Loving vs Virginia
Signed into law by George H.W. Bush. One of the most drastic of the century.
Americans With Disabilites Act
"If men were angels no government would be necessary."
James Madison
Proposed laws or policy thru referrenda
initiatives
law place on ballot by citizen petition
referenda
Energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation and gave strong impetus to the Constitutional Convention.
Shay's Rebellion
Authority to strike down unconstitutional law
Judicial Review
Series of essays defending the constitution under "Publius"
the Federalist Papers
Congress can use the federal budget to expan its influence
South Dakota vs Dole
Gives congress great flexability in carring out is ennumerated powers to make all laws necessary to carry out its delegated powers
Necessary and Proper Clause
When the national government imposes regulation without covering the costs
Unfunded Mandates
Free speech does not extend to messages posing a "clear and present danger"
Schenk vs US
Libel convictions require knowing false statements or reckless disreguard for the truth
NY Times Company vs Sullivan
Improperly obtained evidence cannot be presented during a trial
Exclusionary Rule
Police need a warrant to scan a house with thermal imaging devices.
Kyllo vs US
All citizens require access to proper legal advice
Gideon vs Wainwright
State laws that segregated the races
Jim Crowe Laws
NAACP's leading attorney and 1st black Supreme Court Justice
Thurgood Marshall