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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tendencies of Republicans
Favor tax cuts
Lower federal spending
Tendencies of Democrats
Higher tax rates for the well-to-do
More federal spending for poor people
Definition of political part
A broadly based coalition that attempts to win elections, operate the government, and determine public policy
Why are American political parties weak?
Little control over nominations
Little control over elected officials
What are the consequences of weak political parties?
Representatives are free to address the interests of local and special interest constituencies
Limits that are in campaign contributions according to the Federal Elections Campaign Act?
May contribute only $2100 in direction donations to primary campaign
and another $2100 to general election campaign
cannot give more than $95,000 total per year in direct political donations to several candidates combined
Limits on contributions to self
What are direct primaries?
A preliminary election in which a party's candidates for public office are nominated by direct vote of the people.
What amendment is women's suffrage?
19th amendment
how are party nominees for president officially selected?
chosen by delegates at national convention
how are national convention delegates selected?
Presidential preference primaries
caucuses - meetings of party members
super delegates - elected officials
when are general elections held?
on the first tuesday after the first monday in november
what are the regular activities of a lobbyist?
private meetings
testifying before congressional committees
testifying before executive agencies
entertaining
what are party eras in american politics?
periods in which one party dominates
or
competition is stable
what are some examples of party eras?
New Deal coalition of 1932-1968.
Democrats dominant
1968-Present. era of divided government
what term describes the organization of american political parties?
coalition
what characterizes the electoral college?
each state has as many electors as senators and reps
electors chosen by state parties
winner-take-all winner of the popular vote gets all the state's electoral votes
what are some trends in campaigning in recent years?
candidate-centered rather than party-centered
campaign consultants and other "specialists" now dominate campaigns
use of "tracking polls" and "focus groups"
what is party dealignment?
a decline in party loyalties that reduces long-term party commitment.
what is party realignment?
groups of voters switch party allegiance, producing a long-term change in the political landscape.
what are jim crow laws?

its purposes?

a method?
laws that segregated blacks and whites

kept blacks from voting

literacy tests
why has the american party system always been 2-party?
single member districts - winner-takes-all
state and federal laws favoring two parties
what are some direct techniques of interest groups?
direct lobbying - involves personal encounters between lobbyists and public officials
contribute money
litigation (filing lawsuits)
lobby the bureaucracy
what are some indirect (grassroots) lobbying techniques?
mobilize and educate constituents to change public opinion and gain popular support
issue advertising
whats an example of the shotgun approach to grassroots lobbying?
marches
rallies
boycotts
sit-ins
why do interest groups have trouble recruiting members?
immobilism (gridlock) - government less able to achieve solutions
class-biased participation and representation
what are interest groups, pressure groups or lobbyists?
an organized group of people sharing common objectives that try to enter the policy process at several pressure points to influence policy makers.
more narrow focus than a political party.
What are advantages to interest group participation?
allows for democratic expression
educates leaders and the public about issues
provides for some degree of compromise and stability
What are disadvantages to interest group participation?
immobilism (gridlock) - government less able to achieve solutions
class-biased participation and representation
what is a caucus?
a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement.
what are some methods for selecting delegates?
presidential preference primaries
caucuses
super delegates
what are disadvantages of interest group activities?
immobilism
class biased participation
how does the electoral college work?
each state has as many electors as senators and representatives
electors chosen by state parties
winner-take-all - winner of the popular vote gets all the state's electoral votes
what are some criticisms of the electoral college?
winner of popular vote might not be elected
faithless elector
small states overrepresented
what are some examples of a single issue group?
NRA
PETA
what are some examples of a professional association?
national associate of Realtors
national association of manufacturors
who joins interest groups?
wealthier and/or more highly educated individuals
what makes an interest group powerful?
size and resources
leadership
cohesiveness - the strength of members' beliefs
what can be used to check the power of organized interest of "factions"?
diffusion - a large and diverse country undercuts the power of any one faction
dividing power among several institutions - no one group can control all parts
what takes place at the democratic and republican national convention?
a media event
help to unify the party and educate voters about candidates
what is the minimum standard for democracy?
voting
what is the 15th amendment?
provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen from voting because of his race, color, or previous condition of servitude (slavery)
what is the 19th amendment?
provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizen's sex.
what is the 24th amendment?
prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
what is the 26th amendment?
citizen has the right to vote at age 18
what are some reason for the decline in voter turnout?
registration requirements
uninformed media coverage/negative campaigning
nonvoters happy with status quo
rational ignorance effect