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86 Cards in this Set

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politics
process by which individuals and groups reach agreement on a common course of action even as they continue to disagree on the goals that action is intended to achieve
bargaining
form of negotiation in which two or more parties who disagree propse exchanges and concessions to find a course of acceptable collective action
compromise
settlement in which each side concedes some of its preferences in order to secure others
preferences
individuals choices reflecting economic situation, religious values, ethnic identity or other valued interests
institutions
organization in a democracy that manages potential conflicts between political rivals, helps them to find mutally acceptable solutions, and makes and enforces teh societys collective agreements.
exp include congress, presidency and the supreme court
constitution
document outlining the formal rules and institutions of government and the limits placed on its powers
government
institutions and procedures through which people are ruled
authority vs. power
authority: right to make and implement decisions assigned to office, not individual

power: officeholders actual influence with other officeholders and as a consequence, over the governments actions
why have institutional reform and how does it generally occur?
reform is undertakento make institutions preform more efficiently. also, they enable institutions to accomplish new collective goals
collective action problem
an action taken by a group of likeminded individuals to achieve a common goal
coordination
act of organizing a group to achieve a common goal. coordination remains a prerequisite for effective collective action even after the disincentive to individual participation have been solved
prisoners dilemma
a situation in which 2 or more actors cannot agree to cooperate for fear that the otheer will find its interest best served by reneging on an argreement
free riding
situation in which individuals can receive the benefits from a collective activity whether or not they helped to pay for it, leaving them with no incentive to contribute
tragedy of the commons
situation in wh ich group members overexploit a common resource, causing its destruction
cost of collective action
officers participants benefits they could not achieve on their own, but participation may require some cost (time/money). key is to minimize cost...cost can be material or not
transaction cost
time, effort and resources required to make collective decisions
conformity cost
difference between what a person ideally would prefer and what the group with which that person makes collective decisions actually does
seperation of powers
distribution of government powers among several political institutions
principle-agent relationship
principals are those individuals who possess the authority--the right--to make certain decisions. principals can then choose to delegate to agents teh authority to make and impmlement these decisions for them
agency loss
discrepancy between what principals would ideally like their agents to do and how these agents actually behave
representative government
political system in which citizens select government officials who, acting as their agents, deliberate and commit the citizenry to a course of collective action.
direct democracy
citizens participate directly in collective decision making
republic
form of democracy in w hich pwer is vested in elected representative
coalition
alliance of unlike-minded individuaals or gorups to achieve some common purpose such as lobby, legislating, or campaigning for the election of public officials
why do politicians act strategically?
they subordinate their sincere preferences over what is best for their constituents in order to achieve results that stand a better chance of success
private goods
things people buy and consume themselves in a marketplace that supplies these goods according to the demand for them
public goods
goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyones consumption
collective goods
less restrictive term than public goods
externalities
public goods or bads generated as a byproduct of private activity (exp. air pollution is an externality, public bad, b/c it is, in part, the byproduct of the private activity of driving a car)
why were we well suited to break with the monarchy?
graphically-distance limited britians capactity to govern colonies and american enjoyed home rule
home rule
power given by a state to a locality to enact legislation and manage its own affairs locally. applies to britians administration of the american colonies.
what eevents led tot he dismanting of colonial home rule?
frances defeat in 1763...britian claims america
britian was broke by end of the war
stamp act of 1765
colonies united against britian
britian continued imposing taxes and administrative laws to weaken colonial assemblies
boston massacre
boston tea party
stamp act
imposed a ta on all printed materials
franklins plan of the union
american army to plan for the colonies defense, a popularly elected national legislature and an executive appointed by the kind.
created a national government
first continental congress
adoptiion of the declaration of american rights (reasserted home rule, ban all trade w/ britian), "committees of observations"
second continental congress
1776. continental congress became national government. no legal authority to conduct a war. need for coordination. created state governments and governships
declaration of independance
declared the independence of the 13 colonies from great britian. dreafted by thomas jefferson and adopted by 2nd continental congress on july 4, 1776
common sense
thomas paines pamphlet that brought attention to the issue of speration forom england. argument that only in the creation of an independent republic would people find contentment
articles of confederation
first written constitution that created a confederation (decentralized and national government recieved limited authority from states) each state had 1 vote (9/13 to pass law and unanimous to ammend.) created a new permanent government
weakness of the articles of confederation
inability to regulate trade and levy taxes
problems of free riding and coordination
no uniform currency
no executive/judiciary
difficult to pas laws/ammend
great compromise
agreement between large and small states at teh constitutional convention (1778) that stated that the house (determined by population) and a senate (2 per state) would make up congress. authority to levy taxes reserved to lower chamber.
state rights
guards against a too pwerful national government. favored by one group at teh convention. they wanted to retain state powers like their role in selecting national officers
necessary and proper clause
article 1, section 8...congress can make any laws taht they deem "necessary and proper"
supports supremacy clasue
checks and balances
each branch has a certain amount of control over the other two
montesquieu
french philopher who gave teh ideas of branches and a limited government
veto
presidents power to reject a bill.
can be overridden by 2/3 vote in each house
electoral college
electors in each state formally elct president/vice.
# electors = states representation in congress
supremacy clause
article 6...states national laws are supreme over state laws
judicial review
court can declare legislative and executive acts unconstitutional
logroll
legislative vote trading
how is slavery in the constitution
slaves counted as 3/5 of a person
how is the constitution ammended
proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses in congress or a con stitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 of 50 states
ratified by 3/4 of 50 state legislature of 3/4 special constitutional conventions called by 50 states
roadblocks to the constitutions ratification
disagreement between national and states advocates
what did the federalist argue?
anti-federalist?
federalist: strong centralized national government
anti-federalist: argued only local democracy could approach true democracy
federalist papers
essay to persuade people to be for ratification. showed people what constitution actually meant
federalist paper 10
large republic cannot survive...how we deal with factions
federalist paper 51
seperation of powers and checks and balances
bill of rights
first ten ammendments to the constitution. compmromise that madison had to make with the antifederatlist to ratify the constitution.
federalism
division between national and smaller government
unitaray
authority is centered at state and local governments administering authority delegated from central government
federation
authority divided between state and central government
confederation
authority at state governments and delegated to central government by consensus agreements
three condidtions required of a federal system
smae people and terriotry included in both levels
national constitution protects units at each level of government from encroachment by others
each unit is in position to exert some leverage over the other
difference beteween dual and shared federalism
dual says national and state government presdie over mutaually exclusive spheres of influence and
shared says that they both have to supply services to the citizenry
exclusive powers of national and state government
national: coin money, treaties, war, postal system
state: run elections, protect public health
powers denied to national and state government
nation: tax state exports, change state boundaries, impose religious tests
state: coin money, enter in treaties
how do state and national governments share power?
tax, charter banks and corporations, take property, enforce laws
argument against nationalization
federal government has intruded into the responsibilities of the state so much that it is not a shared federalism anymore.
national government calls the shots
how us became nation of nationalized public policy iinstead of segmented communities
collective action and political consideration
america was a nation of segmented communities, but over time, changes occured and the desire for public goods could not be met locally
example of coordination problem
regulation of electrical transmission
example of reneging and shirking
air/water pollution
example of cutthroat competition
looking for workers in other states who will work for cheaper
what does teh constitution say about federalism?
tries to specify boundaries between the two governments. gives powers to the state that are not delegated to the federal government
how did the senate aid the cause of states righteres until the 17th amendment was passed?
senators regardedthemseles as agents of the state and voted for whatever the states wanted
supremacy clause
national government can only act in a way that conforms to a constitution that prohibits certain kinds of federal activities
10th amendment
states get powers not delegated ot the national government
mcculloch vs. maryland
protected national government from actions of states (supremacy and elastic clause)
gibbons vs. ogden
only congress possesses teh authority to regulate commerce
preemptive legislation
sate governments must "bow" to national governments
grant-in-aid
funds given by congress to states for a specific purpose. give teh federal government th epower to define the way these programs should run
block grant
lots of money from federal government, but leave it up to states to decide how to spend it
categorical grant
money from federal government to states for specific cause with federal guidelines for spending
unfunded mandates
states required to administer policies they might object to.
may also be asked to pay for the adinistration of the policies
cross-cutting reuirements
recieve a grant for one thing, but must obey to rules for another, totally seperate, thing
crossover sanctions
stipulations that a state has to adhere to guidelines of an unrelated program to remain eligible for full fedeal fundign for one program
direct orders
requirements that can be enforced by legal and civil penalties