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116 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
LOGROLLING
An arrangement between two or more members of Congress that agree to support each others bills in advanced.
CONTINUING RESOLUTION
A temporary law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on Oct. 1
BICAMERALISM
The division of a legislature into two separate assemblies
CONSTITUENT
One of the people represented by a legislature or other elected or appointed official
JUSTICIABLE QUESTION
A question that may be raised and reviewed in court
CASEWORK
Personal work for constituents by members of Congress
MAJORITY LEADERS
A legislative position held by an important party member in the House of Reps. The majority leader is selected by the majority party in caucus or conference to foster cohesion among party members and to act as spokesperson fro the majority party in the House.
MINORITY LEADERS
The party leader elected by the minority party in the House
FISCAL YEAR
A twelve-month period that is used for bookkeeping, or accounting, purposes. Usually, the fiscal year does not coincide with the calendar year. For example, the federal government’s fiscal year runs from Oct. 1 through Sept. 30
DISCHARGE PETITION
A procedure by which a bill in the House of Reps may be forced out of a committee (discharged) that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The discharge petition must be signed by an absolute majority (218) of representatives and is used only on rare occasions.
FILIBUSTER
Employing unlimited debate as a blocking tactic
GERRYMANDERING
Elridge Gerry Gov. of Mass. Drew boundaries to favor his party. The term means drawing the boundaries to favor a party. It’s up to the state legislature.
JOINT COMMITTEE
A legislative committee composed of members from both chambers of Congress.
STANDING COMMITTEE
A permanent committee in the House or Senate that considers bills within a certain subject area.
REDISTRICTING
The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within a state
OMSBUDSPERSON
A person who hears and investigates complaints by private individuals against public officials or agencies
CONFRENCE COMMITTEE
A special joint committee appointed to reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms
AUTHORIZATION
A formal declaration by a legislative committee that a certain amount of funding may be available to an agency. Some authorizations terminate in a year, others are renewable automatically without further congressional action.
CONTINUING RESOLUTION
A temporary law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on Oct. 1
DISCHARGE PETITION
A procedure by which a bill in the House may be forced out of a committee (discharged) that has refused to report it for consideration by the House. The discharge petition must be signed by an absolute majority (218) of representatives and is used only on rare occasions.
SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE
The presiding officer in the House of Reps. The Speaker is always a member of the majority party and is the most party and is the most powerful and influential member of the House.
EMERGENCY POWERS
An inherent power exercised by the president during a period of national crisis, particularly in foreign affairs.
IMPEACHMENT
As authorized by Articles I and II of the Constitution, an action by the House of Reps to accuse the president, vice president, or civil officers of the US of committing “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”
EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE
The right of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee. Executive privilege is enjoyed by the president and by those executive officials accorded that right by the president.
EXECUTIVE ORDER
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statues.
CABINET
An advisory groiup selected by the president to aid in decision making. The cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and others named by the president. Depending on the president, the cabinet may be highly influential or relatively insignificant in its advisory role.
KITCHEN CABINET
The informal advisers to the president.
OMB (Office of Management and Budget)
A division of the Executive Office of the President created by executive order in 1970 to replace the Bureau of the Budget. The OMB’s main functions are to assist the president in preparing the annual budget, to clear and coordinate all departmental agency budgets, to help set fiscal policy, and to supervise the administration of the federal budget.
NSC (National Security Council)
A staff agency in the Executive Office of the President established by the National Security Act of 1947. The NSC advises the president on domestic and foreign matters involving national security.
ADVICE AND CONSENT
The power vested in the U.S. Senate by the Constitution (Article II, Section 2)to give its advice and consent to the president on treaties and presidential appointments.
WAR POWERS RESOLUTION
A law passed in 1973 spellin out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval.
PATRONAGE
Rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts.
CIVIL SERVICE
A collective term for the body of employees working for the government. Generally, the term is understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system.
STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS
An annual message to congress in which the president proposes a legislative program Article II section 3
COMMANDER IN CHIEF
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service.
REPRIEVE
Postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed by a court of law: usually done for humanitarian reasons or to await new evidence.
PARDON
A release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime, a pardon can be granted by the president before or after a conviction.
12TH AMENDMENT
Adopted in 1824 and it certifies the election of a president and vice president. The electoral college votes for each separately.
BUREAUCRACY
Any administrative system but particularly a gov. agency that carries out policy on a day to day basis.
CAPTURE
The act of gaining direct or indirect control over agency personnel and decision makers by the industry that is being regulated.
CIVIC SERVICE COMMISSION
The initial central personnel agency of the national government; created in 1883.
IRON TRIANGLE
The three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests.
PENDLETON ACT
The law, as amended over the years, that remains the basic statute regulating federal employment personnel policies. It established the principle of employment on the basis of merit and created the Civil Service Commission to administer the personnel service.
SPOILS SYSTEM
The awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends; generally associated weith President Andrew Jackson.
SUNSET LEGISLATION
A law requiring that an existing program be reviewed regularly for its effectiveness and be terminated unless specifically extended as a result of this review.
INCREMENTAL BUDGETING
Every year a committee asks for what you got the previous year and a little bit more.
22ND AMENDMENT
Limitations of presidential terms. No president can serve more than two terms. And they cannot serve for more then 10 years total
25TH AMENDMENT
Installed in 1967 it establishes procedures for filing presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential disabilities.
20TH AMENDMENT
Adopted in 1933 (Lame duck amendment) If a person loses in Nov. they sill stay in office until March . The officials would take advantage of this.
MAX WEBER
German scholar, said thought bureaucracy would grow as the government grows more powerful.
WHISTLEBLOWER
An insider who brings to public attention gross governmental inefficiency or an illegal action.
GOVERNMETN CORPORATION
An agency of government that advinisters a quasi’business enterprise. These corporations are used when actrivities are primarily commercial. They produce revenue for their continued existence, and they require greater flexibility than is permitted for departments and agencies.
INDEPENDENT REGULATORY COMMISSION
An agency outside of the major executive departments charged with making and implementing rules and regulations.
JUDICIAL ACTIVISM
A doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should take an active role in using it s powers to check the activities of Congress, state legislatures, and administrative agencies when those government bodies exceed their authority.
JUDICIAL RESTRAINT
A doctrine holding that the Supreme Court should defer to the decisions made by the elected representatives of the people in the legislative and executive branches.
CASE LAW
The rules and principles announced in court decisions. Case law includes judicial interpretations of common law principles and doctrines as well as interpretations of constitutional law, statutory law, and administrative law
CLASS-ACTION SUIT
A lawsuit filed by an individual seeking damages for “all persons similarly situated.”
COMMON LAW
Judge-made law that originated in England from decisions shaped according to prevailing customs. Decisions where applied to similar situations and thus gradually became common to the nation.
RULE OF FOUR
A United States Supreme Court procedure according to which four justices must vote to hear a case in order for the case to come before the full Court.
WRIT OF CERTIORARI
An order issued by a higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review. It is the principal vehicle for US Supreme court review.
STARE DECISIS
To stand on decided cases; the judicial policy of following precedents established by past decisions.
MAJORITY OPINION
A court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judges.
CONCURRING OPINION
A separate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the decision of the majority of the court but who wants to make or clarify a particular point or to voice disapproval of the grounds on which the decision was made.
DISSENTING OPINION
A separate opinion in which a judge dissents from (disagrees with) the conclusion reached by the majority on the court and expounds his her own views about the case.
JURISDICTION
The authority of a court to decide certain cases. Not all courts have the authority to decide all cases. Where a case arises and what its subject matter is are two jurisdictional factors.
ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
When the case is first heard in court before it is appealed to a higher court.
APPELLATE JURISDICTION
When a case is appealed and therefore leaves the original court and goes to a higher court.
AFFIRM
To declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand.
FEDERAL QUESTION
A question that pertains to the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. A federal question provides a basis for federal jurisdiction.
DIVISIVE OPINION
Public opinion that is polarized between two quite different positions.
REVERSE
To annul or make void a court ruling on account of some error or irregularity.
REMAND
To send a case back to the court that originally heard it.
POLITICAL QUESTION
An issue that a court believes should be decided by the executive or legislative branch.
SENATORIAL COURTESY
In federal district court judgeship nominations, a Senate tradition allowing a senator of the president’s political party to veto a jusicial appointment is personally not acceptable. At the point, the Senate may reject the nomination, or the president may withdraw consideration of the nominee.
REDISTRICTING
The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within a state.
REAPPORTIONMENT
The allocation of seats in the House of Reps to each state after each census.
SUNBELT STATES
“South” bottom tier of the U.S. population is steadily growing.
FROST BELT (RUST BELT STATES)
Top tier of the U.S. “North” losing pop considerably
KIRKPATRICK SALE
“The Power Shift” The population will continue to go South and the political power from the South. And presidents will come from the South. Rise in conservatism and military patriotism, religious fundamentalism.
COLGROVE V. GREEN
A NU professor, Colgrove took the Gov. of Illinois to court for not redrawing the congressional districts since 1901. He took the Gov. to court on the bases of the 14th Amendment (equal protection). The SC said that they can not rule because it was a “political” question that she be left up to political officials. Overturned in 1962 in Baker v. Carr.
BAKER V. CARR
Tennessee state legislature had not redrawn the congressional boundaries since 1902. SC said the state was in violation of the 14th Amendment (equal protection) because one person’s vote should be equal to another’s.
REYNOLDS V. SIMS
Court ordered redistricting said representatives weren’t fair. Asked if districts should be redrawn so that there was equal protection. SC said yes and not redrawing the districts would be in violation of the 14th Amendment. Senators that lost the case tried to make an Amendment.
STATISTICAL REPRESENTATION
Percentage of set race in the country proportioned to the number of that race in Congress.
PHILOSOPHICAL REPRESENTATION
Percentage of people of a specific belief equal to the number of that philosophical belief in Congress.
DELEGATE ROLE
You elect me to congress and I’ll mirror you views. (competitive district)
TRUSTEE ROLE
You have entrusted me with your vote and I will do what I think is in your best interest. (safe districts)
POLITICO ROLE
A combination of the Delegate and the Trustee role. I’ll mirror you views but I’ll also do what’s best for you.
FRANKING PRIVILEGE
Able to send mail free of charge.
GOMILLION v. LIGHTFOOT
Tuskegee, AL redrew boundaries but excluded all but 4 African Americans, it was 26 sided. Tuskegee Uni. Dr. Gomillion took the city to court for ratial gerrymandering and said it violates the 15th amendment. SC agreed with Gomillion and said no one can be excluded because of race.
SHAW V. RENO
Congress passed a law so that states would redraw boundaries to reflect ethnic representation. Two districts in N.C. were spread out so far that Ruth Shaw said that it was reverse partial descrimination because they spread the districts too far out and the people within the district did not have anything in common. SC said they violated the 14th Amendment (equal protection)
CHIEF EXECUTIVE
Allows the President to run the government. . Only gov. where the President is both the Chief of State and the Chief Executive.
CHIEF OF STATE
The Presidents position that makes him the ceremonial head of the Government. Only gov. where the President is both the Chief of State and the Chief Executive.
EXECUTIVE ORDER
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statutes.
EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE
The right to of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee. Executive privilege is enjoyed by the president and by those executive officials accorded that right by the president.
APPOINTMENT POWER
The authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position. Positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of the independent regulatory commissions.
REMOVAL POWER
The president has the power to remove anyone he appoints.
IMPEACHMENT
As authorized by Articles I and II of the Constitution, an action by the House of Reps to accuse the president, vice president, or civil officers of the U.S. of committing “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”
PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION ACT OF 1947
If the President dies then the V.P. takes over and if he dies then vacant congress decides
VETO MESSAGE
The president’s formal explanation of a veto when legislation is returned to Congress.
POCKET VETO
A special veto power exercised by the chief executive after a legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specified period of time. If Congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of Congress.
LINE-ITEM VETO
Govenors can take out lines of a bill he doesn’t like.
CITY OF NEW YORK V. CLINTON
Congress gave President Clinton the power of a Line item veto. U.S. supreme court struck down the line item veto. The justices said Congress could not give the President more powers without adding a constitutional amendment.
INS B. CHADHA
Chadha a foreign exchange student was from Kenya but his parents were Indian. Kenya disowned him and he asked for asylum for when his visa expired. Given asylum by the President. Congress said it was illegal and instituted a legislative veto. SC said the only person that can veto is the President.
LEGISLATIVE VETO
When congress vetos something. It’s illegal.
REPRIEVE
Postponement of the execution of a sentence imposed by a court of law; usually done for humanitarian reasons or to await new evidence.
PARDON
A release from the punishment for or legal consequences of crime; a pardon can be granted by the President before or after a conviction.
MYERS V. U.S.
A law said that a postmaster could not be fired without a senator’s approval. Pres. Wilson fired a postmaster. Postmaster took him to court. SC said the President has the right to fire anyone he appoints.
U.S. V. NIXON
Congress ordered Nixon to hand over tapes related to Watergate and he refused so Congress took him to court. SC ruled against Nixon saying that President can only evoke executive priviledge when info requested deals with national security and or foreign affairs.
TREATY
Are binding on all succeeding administrations, an international agreement with the senatorial agreement.
EXECUTIVE AGREEMENT
An international agreement made by the president, without senatorial ratification, with the head of a foreign state. Executive agreements require each new president consent to remain in effect. They are speedy and secretive.
WAR POWERS ACT
Allows the president to use troops abroad under 3 conditions.

1. When congress declares war
2. When congress gives him specific authority to do so
3. When there’s attack on the U.S. or the military creates a national crisis. Unless congress approves the use of troops the President must withdraw them within 60 days or 90 days if he needs more time to protect them.
DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION
The formal acknowledgment of a foreign government as legitimate
BUREAUCRACY
A large organization that is structured hierarchically to carry out specific functions.
PARKINSON’S LAW
C. Northcote “work expands to fill the time available for its completion. Add more people to complete tasks that used to only need one person.
PETER PRINCIPLE
In every hierarchy, people rise to their level of incompentencies.
RATCHET EFFECT
Government forms more committees but it doesn’t get rid of any other committees so the number of committees increases particularly after wars and disasters.