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77 Cards in this Set

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bicameralism
division of legislative body into two houses, chambers or branches, the house and the senate
party caucus
assoiation based on party interest, gender, race also called "conference"
speaker of the house
chief presiding officer of house of Reps, straight party vote, very influential
Majority leader
leader of the party holding the majority of seats - sub to speaker
Minority leader
leader of party holding less people
Standing committee
permanent committee with the power to propose and write legislation
Seniority
priority or status ranking given by length of continuous service
closed rule
provision of house - prohibiting or limiting introduction of amendments during debate
open rule
provision of house allowing amendments during debate
filibuster
tactic where continuously holding the floor until majority breaks down - unlimited time to speak
cloture
rule allowing majority to break filibuster by 3/5 vote
veto
presidents constitutional power to turn down acts by congress and requires a 2/3 vote to overturn
pocket veto
presidential vote wherein president takes no formal action - bill dies after congress adjourns
constituency
members of the represented disctrict
party vote
roll call vote in house or senate where 50% opposed other 50% - rare in current politics
Whip system
primary communications network- take polls, and assist majority or minority in various tasks
logrolling
reciprocal agreements made between legislators for or against a bill - exchange of support
oversight
effort of congress through hearings, investigations and other techniques to exercise control over executive branch
appropriations
amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes that each can spend
executive agreements
agreement between pres and another country that doesn't require 'advice or consent' by congress
impeachment
'treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors' charges brought against pres
patronage
resources to make partisan appointments to offices - confer grants
Pork barrell
not needed money created so local reps can win reelection
private bill
proposal to provide specific person some kind of relief - like immigration exemption
delegates
reps who vote according to preferences of the constituency
trustees
reps who vote according to what they think is best for the constituency
distributive tendency
to spread benefits over a wide range
agency representation
type of rep held accountable by constituents
Inherent powers
powers claimed by pres that are not expressed in the constitution
commander in chief
national military commander
Whip system
primary communications network- take polls, and assist majority or minority in various tasks
logrolling
reciprocal agreements made between legislators for or against a bill - exchange of support
oversight
effort of congress through hearings, investigations and other techniques to exercise control over executive branch
appropriations
amounts of money approved by Congress in statutes that each can spend
executive agreements
agreement between pres and another country that doesn't require 'advice or consent' by congress
impeachment
'treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors' charges brought against pres
patronage
resources to make partisan appointments to offices - confer grants
Pork barrell
not needed money created so local reps can win reelection
private bill
proposal to provide specific person some kind of relief - like immigration exemption
delegates
reps who vote according to preferences of the constituency
trustees
reps who vote according to what they think is best for the constituency
distributive tendency
to spread benefits over a wide range
agency representation
type of rep held accountable by constituents
Inherent powers
powers claimed by pres that are not expressed in the constitution
commander in chief
national military commander
expressed powers
specific powers granted under article II of constitution
delegated powers
constitutional powers assigned to one gov agency but exercised by another
war powers resolution
resolution that president can send troops only if authorized by congress
executive privilege
calim that confidential communications should not be released
line item veto
power allows governor to strike out specific line items- not president anymore
executive orders
rule regulation issued by president that has the effect of legislation
cabinet
informal designation for heads of all major federal departments
National Security Council
"inner cabinet" foreign policy advisor composed of pres, vice pres, sec. state-defense-and other specialists
mandate
claim by victorious candidate to adhere to promises during campaign (landslide victory)
legislative clearance
process enables pres to require agencies submite budgets (balance)
permanent campaign
pres politics in which all presidential actions taken with reelection in mind
rallying effect
favorable reaciton of publc to presidential actions, international crisis 9/11
Stare decisis
previous decision of court applies as precedent in similar cases
uniform commercial code
set of standards for contract laws reduces interstate differences
en banc
as a panel - involves all judges in court
chief justice
presides over all decisions of court, in deliberation he has no more authority
senatorial courtesy
president seeks approval of nomination from senitors who represent own state
judicial review
power of courts declare legislation unconstitutional
supremecy clause
federal legislation is supreme law of the land
habeas corpus
individual in custody must be brought into court and shown cause for detention
writ of certiorari
decision of at least four of nine SC justices to review a decision - "to make more certain"
Solicitor general
top government lawyer in cases where government is the party - third in command and handles the flow of cases
judicial restraint
deference to views of legislators and adherence to strict juris. standards - political rather that legal
judicial activism
court selects cases based on importance to society rather than strict standards
client state
nation dependant upon more powerful nation state - still has power though
unilateralism
unity, freedom, neutrality
multi-lateralism
seeks to encourage several nation-states involvement (NATO)
Marshall Plan
rebuilding of war torm Europe after WWII
Bush Doctrine
foreign policy based on idea that U.S. should take preemptive action
Napoleaonic Role
using every political instrument to keep current government in power
Balance of Power
major powers play off each other to keep a balance
economic expansionist role
what countries have to buy or sell determins foreign policy